The term “police” first came into use in English during the 15th century with the term meaning “public policy” or “public order”. The root of the term comes from French, and the French root term is originally based upon the Latin term “politia” which was adapted from the Greek term “politeia” meaning “citizenship”, “administration”, or “civil polity”. To clarify, the term “polity” means “civil government”. The Greek term “politeia” is based upon the Greek word “polis” which means “city” (e.g. the English term “metropolis” meaning “urbanized/highly condensed city”)

Indian and Pakistani Borders

India-Pakistan-borderBangladesh was once referred to as East Pakistan and modern day Pakistan was referred to as West Pakistan, both being satellite states of India. West Pakistan imposed harsh laws upon East Pakistan including the forcible changing of the national language to Urdu and the forbidding of listening to radio news, most especially the British Broadcasting Network. Bangladesh eventually broke free and gained its independence in 1971

The Renaissance


The person who is accredited with creating The Renaissance is Giorgio Vasari as he published a book entitled “Le Vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori” which means “The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects” in Italian. The book is often shortened in its title and called “The Lives of Artists”. This book ended up becoming the most influential art book of all time. Within the preface of the book, Vasari uses the term “rinascita” which means “rebirth” in Italian, to describe what was going on around him. Vasari stated that under the ancient Greeks and ancient Roman’s, art and civilization reached it’s highest levels of perfection, and that when the barbarians, or as they’re called today, the Germans, came into the picture, the arts fell to ruins. The Renaissance is measured to have occurred between 1400 – 1600, with the dates being slightly vague on each end

Aircraft Carriers


Landing an aircraft on an aircraft carrier at sea is considered the most difficult task in aviation. The first aircraft ever landed on the deck of a steamship was accomplished in 1911, just a few short years after the Wright brothers had the first airplane become airborne. The task was accomplished by having ropes and sandbags run horizontally across the wooden landing stage on top of the deck of the ship. The rope caught a hook on the bottom of the landing aircraft and slowed it down, with each bag adding more and more weight. The engineering of this practice is still in use today, with the only significant difference being the components used, which are now high tension steel cables. Marines and navy officers jointly train for their wings, but navy officers are more likely to take off at sea, whilst marine officers are more likely to take off from land

General Motors


General Motors, through various shell companies, purchased the Los Angeles, United States of America, mass transit system and deconstructed it so that only vehicles and highways would survive the transition. General Motors understood that people wanted and needed a simple way get where they needed to be within a reasonable amount of time and doing away with public transit meant that these people would have no alternative other than to purchase a vehicle, with the goal being for these people to purchase from General Motors. By 1960, the last remaining trolleys were shut down and taken to the nearby Santa Monica Bay to be thrown into the ocean, which is why they are now being used as reefs. This was not a person centered solution nor was it an environmental centered solution, but it was an intelligent business decision and did end up changing the way American’s viewed transit. Traffic congestion became more and more difficult as time progressed so the municipality of Los Angeles decided to widen  its freeways to compensate for the sudden burst of vehicles within the city

Technological Advances in Film


Until the 1980’s, nature documentarians like a David Attenborough, could only film underwater for 10 minutes at a time before rising to the surface to swap out the film roll which had just been used, as it would be full after such time. Video tapes solved this issue as they permitted the person using it to film for 30 minutes. Video tapes were also more sensitive than traditional film reels and therefore low light conditions could be filmed for the first time, making artificial lights unnecessary. The security industry developed infrared cameras within the coming decades which made filming nocturnal animals possible for the first time, without the use of artificial lights which disturbed the nocturnal animals natural processes. Soon after cameras which use neither artificial light nor infrared light but rather low light provided by the stars and the moon became available which made it possible to record animals in blue and white hues, similar to infrared but not the same, as eyes are not reflective as is the case with infrared. These star and moonlight cameras make nighttime appear more natural, making the night appear as it does to human beings during the latter part of dusk. During this time, optical probes were invented which made possible the ability to dive into the world of burrowed animals and insects. Macro and micro lenses as well as the ability to slow down and speed up the perception of time are not new concepts, but they have been vastly improved in the most recent decades and because of this, distinguished details can be recorded which are impossible to see with the naked eye. Ariel photography gained leaps and bounds in its ability to fit into tightly enclosed spaces by moving from airplanes, to helicopters, to hot air balloons, and finally to drones. Animated figures both static and dynamic helped illustrate when narrating about historical figures like dinosaurs, and models created by hand led to further this style of narrative, but the technique of after shot animation did not truly get it’s wings until the technology of computer animation caught up to movie special effects and then surpassed them by looking more realistic than any model which could be designed by hand

Tempered Glass


Tempered glass is made from annealed glass which is regular glass, also referred to as “non-tempered” glass. Annealed glass is placed onto a roller table, taking it through a furnace which heats it 620 degrees Celsius, which is well above its transition temperature of 564 degrees Celsius in which it changes from a hard material into a soft rubber material. The glass is soon after rapidly cooled with forced air. The inner portion remains free to flow for a short time whilst the outer portion hardens quickly. An alternative chemical toughening process involves forcing a surface layer of glass at least 0.1 mm thick into compression by ion exchange of the sodium ions in the glass surface with potassium ions (which are 30% larger), by immersion of the glass into a bath of molten potassium nitrate. Chemical toughening results in increased toughness compared with thermal toughening and can be applied to glass objects of complex shapes