Abraham Lincoln Ending Slavery


Abraham Lincoln very much wanted to end slavery in the United State of America but he was rational enough to assume that doing so would require more than simply becoming president and signing its abolishment into law. The American Civil War was not fought to end slavery. It was fought to stop the rebellion and secession of slave states from the United States of America. The Southern states wanted to secede from the Northern states because they understood that Lincoln was going to work to end slavery with or without their support, during his presidency. However, even after ending the long and arduous American Civil War, slavery still thrived in the Southern states. The 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, ultimately ended the practice of slavery and slave trading. As the American Civil War was waning and it became apparent that the Confederacy would indefinitely lose to the Northern states, Lincoln fought hard to have Congress pass the 13th Amendment, so that it would be added to the United States of America Constitution. He signed it into law after the American Civil War ended, and doing so effectively ended slavery in the United States of America on December 6, 1865. Incidentally, the 13th Amendment passed the Senate on April 8, 1864 but was not signed into official law being that it is now part of the United States of America Constitution until 1865 

Roger Stone


The term “super pac” is an acronym which stands for “political action committee”. The idea was created by political mastermind Roger Stone in the 1970’s, as a way to help boost a Republican presidential candidates chances of winning the presidential election. Stone created many concepts in politics including using fear as a motivational tactic to vote for the opposition, using dirty tricks so long as they were legal to help smear a rival candidate therefore boosting the opposition’s chances of winning, and promoting a candidate by advertising smear campaign advertisements on television. Stone understood that half truths and distortions were the most powerful tools within his disposal because when he was a child he promoted John F. Kennedy within his elementary school mock election and debate by spreading the rumor that Richard Nixon wanted to extend the school week an extra day by having children attend school on Saturday. The trick worked and it was at that moment that Stone realized he wanted to create a career in politics instead of cinema

Professional Career In Sports


Specializing in a sport early on does not guarantee success, except with the exception of gymnastics and figure skating which seem to contradict this statement. Over 80% of top tier athletes played multiple sports, and never focussed with tenacity on any specific sport. When children play pick up games, they statistically have better decision making skills because there is no adult intervention. Organized sports which have adult intervention tends to have the opposite effect and provides a higher chance of less competitive children, who  do not participate, and do not have strong management skills because typically if teams are lopsided in a pick up game, children are apt to change the players on each team, but if teams are lopsided in an organized game, the game continues on until the end

Syrup and Molasses


Syrup and molasses are not the same thing, but are commonly confused and used interchangeably. Both syrup and molasses are comprised of sugar and have similar textures and uses. Molasses is a byproduct of the sugar making process as it is the syrupy residue left behind after sugar crystals are extracted from sugar cane or sugar beets during the boiling process. Cane syrup is made from sugar cane juice as the juice is boiled down and evaporated to create cane syrup. The types of molasses vary based upon which step of the sugar crystallization process the residue came from. Light molasses is the residue left behind after the first boiling process, while dark molasses comes from the second boiling process. Blackstrap molasses, the residue left after the third boiling is dark and bitter and normally not used for cooking. Cane syrup is referred to as “golden syrup”, “jus de canne” or “sugar cane juice”. Cane syrup is an amber colored liquid, available in light and dark varieties. To prevent crystallization, some cane syrup manufacturers add corn syrup to the product

British Penny


Neither the United States of America nor Canada have ever manufactured a penny. The term “penny” is a British invention derived from the term “pence” and refers to a “coin used before 1971 which is worth one twelfth of a shilling”. When the United States seceded from Britain, they created the term “cent”, which refers to a “unit of currency which is 1% of $1.00

Engineering Pipes For Liquid Flow


The most efficient way to utilize gravity to carry water across long distances is to use a 4 degree slope. Doing so allows water to flow through the pipeline unimpeded whilst allowing a steady flow of air into the pipe so as not to create pressure upon the joints of any bends. Anything above 4 degrees will cause an area of turbulence referred to as a “hydraulic jolt”