Societal Changes Within the United Kingdom Which Occurred​ After World War I

edwardian-estate

Post World War I in the United Kingdom, many battle hardened veterans no longer viewed themselves as servants to the wealthier classes of society and demanded social equality, suddenly realizing that work in factories and within dense city populations could provide a better standard of living than within small economically cut off villages. Suddenly, without warning, aristocratic estate owners went from paying 6% on their income tax, to a much higher rate in line with what a common person would pay. Due to this massive increase in the amount of income now required to continue the running of an estate, many were demolished during the 1950’s and 1960’s and much of the artwork within these homes which initially would have been passed down throughout subsequent generations as family heirlooms, were sold to the U.S. as the U.S. was the wealthiest nation in the world during the era and had the ability to help once wealthy families avoid complete financial ruin. Most aristocratic dynasties simply gave up with the introduction of these new income tax policies as the cost of maintenance was simply too great for what an estate could reasonably generate

The Ancient City of Cappadocia in Modern Day Derinkuyu, Turkey

cappadocia-turkey

The underground cave site of Derinkuyu, Turkey, commonly referred to as “Cappadocia”, is an underground network of caves and tunnels which date back to the prehistoric era, as evidence of stone tools have been uncovered at the site. Experts believe that 20,000 – 60,000 people inhabited the Cappadocian caves with indication of air vents and water wells making it theoretically possible to live underground for extended periods of time, spanning years even. Stone wheels made of volcanic basalt were fashioned to create what’s referred to as “self sealing doors”. The rocks would be rolled in front of a pathway making entry impossible for invaders due to the inability to gain leverage. The only possibility of entry would be to cut through this wheel, often up to 1’ thick in width, which would waste valuable time giving those upon the other side time to prepare a counter attack

The Importance of the Diatom to the Earth

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4x thinner than a human hair, the diatom is the secret to the Earth’s oxygen supply. Diatoms utilize silica from ground up rock to create new shells which allow them to reproduce. The population of the diatom doubles every single day during their reproduction cycle. Each diatom can perform the process of photosynthesis and provide the world with oxygen as a byproduct, enough oxygen in fact that 1 out of every 2 breaths taken in by every living human being has been created entirely by diatoms. Diatoms aren’t only vital when they are alive, they’re also incredibly important after their deaths because their carcasses slowly fall to the ocean floor and then carpet the ocean floor in a layer 800 meter thick. This phenomenon is often referred to as “marine snow”

The Connection Between Parrot Fish and Sand

beach-sand

On some beach islands in the Maldives, as much as 70% of all sand comes from the excrement of parrot fish. Parrot fish primarily consume coral which is composed of calcium carbonate and causes their excrement to become white sand. A single parrot fish can eat enough coral to expel 1 tonne of sand within a single year

Chinese Landscape Painting

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Landscape painting came into itself during the 10th century in China and by the 11th century, the art form had inlaid deep roots into the Song Dynasty and Chinese culture as a whole. Painting academies were established and books were written about the philosophy and practice of landscape art. It was believed by the Chinese that to be Chinese was to be civilized and to be civilized was to paint. While Europe was in the depths of the Dark Ages, and the Mayan civilization in Central America was collapsing, the Chinese were trading in paper money and developing and using advanced technologies like gun powder. Perspective Chinese bureaucrats were expected to demonstrate artistic talent by taking and passing examinations in calligraphy before being able to serve in government roles

18th Century Crowd Wrangling During Theatrical Shows

18th-century-theater

18th century music would often open with a strong fanfare of a few short notes, as there was no electricity during this period and therefore theater show lights could not be dimmed down to signal the beginning of a theatrical show. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart particularly enjoyed using this technique as he felt it was a robust way to open his symphonies. During the 18th century, it was not uncommon for people to chat and drink during a performance, even moving between seats if they saw somebody they knew so that a conversation could be started

Kenyan Female Marriage Traditions

kuria-kenya-woman-to-woman-marraige

8 hours from Nairobi, Kenya is Kuria, Kenya, a village in which most men have multiple wives and women often marry other women. The tradition of female to female marriage is referred to as “Nyumba Mboke” (pronounced “nee-yom bom-bah-kay”). Woman to woman marriage is actually quite common across the African continent. The reason female intersex marriages are common is due solely to the birth of a male heir. When African women grow into adulthood, they typically leave their families to move in with the families of their husbands, taking over for their husband’s parents in the various chores of daily life (e.g. cooking, cleaning, acquiring water and firewood etc.). In contrast to this, males always stay with their family and bring their wife to live within their home so that she can take care of the mans aging parents. When a woman cannot produce a male heir or when every male heir she has birthed dies, a secondary wife is usually taken on to help birth new life. Older and more established families often take on a wife for the head wife of the family as a sort of surrogate daughter-in-law