Crossbow vs. Archer Strength During the 13th Century, the Reason Carbon Makes Iron into Steel, the Reason Iron and/or Steel are Hit Repeatedly During the Forging Process, Metal vs. Bloom Ratio, How the First Firearms Worked, the Earliest Documented Firearms Battle, the Difficulty of Wearing Jousting Armor, the Immense Weight of English King Henry VIII’s Jousting Armor, the Meaning of Black and White Streaks Within Metal, the Difficult Gilding Process, Blacksmiths Heat Treating Armor to Turn it Blue, How Oxide Occurs, and the Short Lifespan of Full Battle Armor Worn During Battle

There are no surviving texts which describe how to create or harden and temper the armor worn by knights of the Medieval period. Crossbows which were invented in the 13th century were up to 7x more powerful than a professional archer with the strongest of arms. The reason carbon makes iron into steel is because in pure iron, atoms are stacked like marbles and when pushed or pulled, the atoms slide past eachother. When carbon is introduced, the carbon becomes trapped in between the iron atoms and...

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