The History of the Universe Being Observable Within the Night Sky, Carbon Being Found Within Every Cell Within the Human Body, How Stars Formulate Elements From Hydrogen and Helium, Stars Being Unable to Produce Elements More Unstable Than Beryllium, English Astronomer Fred Hoyle Discovering Why Stars Can Produce Heavy Elements, Hoyle’s Discovery of Stable Carbon Arising From Hydrogen, the Implications of Hoyle’s Theory, the Hertzsprung-Russell Star Catalog, Hoyle’s Discovery of Stars Burning Hydrogen, Helium, and Carbon Until Exhaustion, Hoyle Helping Scientists Understand Star Evolution, the Problem With Hoyle’s Theory of Stars Producing Carbon With Extra Energy, Hoyle Demanding Resources Become Dedicated Toward Proving Carbon With Extra Energy, Hoyle’s Prediction of the Electron Voltage of Carbon With Extra Energy, Hoyle Ignored by the Nobel Prize Committee Despite His Discovery, How American Astronomer Vesto Slipher Discoverd the Motion of Nebulae, How Slipher Discovered the Collision Course of the Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy, Slipher Discovering the Speed at Which the Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy are Colliding, the Discovery of the Andromeda Galaxy Being a Galaxy and Not a Nebulae, Scientists Leveraging German Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to Discover Critical Density (the End of the Universe), the Big Freeze vs the Big Crunch, the Concept of “Critical Density”, the Reason Critical Density Will Determine the Fate of the Universe, Evidence of the Universe Ending in the Big Freeze, New Zealand Astronomer Beatrice Tinsley Completing Her Doctorate Degree in Half the Time Typically Required, How Astronomers Measure the Distance of Galaxies, the Problem of Measuring Galaxies Throughout the Universe, Scientists Erroneously Believing Galaxy Luminosity Does Not Change Over Time to Compensate for Problems Measuring Distance Using Light, the Subject of Study for Tinsley’s Doctorate, Tinsley Discovering That Galaxy Luminosity Changes Over Time, the Implications of Tinsley’s Discovery, Countless Star Luminosity Measurements Understood to be Recorded in Vain Post Tinsley’s Discovery, Tinsley’s Discovery Accepted After 4 Years, the Concept of Adding Everything Within the Universe to Calculate Critical Density, the Solution Implemented to Calculate Critical Density, the Critical Density Discovery Which Surprised Scientists, the Possibility of it Being Impossible for the Universe to Collapse, American Astrophysicist Margaret Geller Discovering a Bubble Like Honey Comb Pattern Throughout the Universe, Geller Discovering Order Within the Placement of Stars Throughout the Universe, the Importance of Gravity for Matter to Condense, the Problem With the Estimate of All Matter Contained Within the Universe, Scientists Recognizing This Estimate to be Incorrect, Swiss Astronomer Fritz Zwicky’s Concept of “Spherical Bastards”, How Zwicky Calculated the Strength of Gravity and the Importance of This Discovery, Zwicky’s Calculations Demonstrating a 100x Increase of Mass Within the Universe Than Originally Hypothesized, Zwicky Creating the Theory of Dark Matter, the Problem Presented by Attempting to Measure Dark Matter, the Accidental Discovery Made at the Jodrell Bank Observatory While Observing Quasar Stars, the First Time Quasars Were Believed to be Discovered Within Close Proximity, the High Similarity of the Quasars Studied, the Reason These Quasars Appeared Seemingly Identical, the Concept of “Gravitational Lensing”, How Gravitational Lensing Works, the Determining Factor for How Much Light is Bent During Gravitational Lensing, the Reason the Same Quasar Was Observed as 2 Disparate Quasars, Leveraging Quasars and Gravitational Lensing to Reveal Dark Matter, Strong Evidence of Dark Matter Discovered Despite Being Unable to Be Interacted With, the Reason Measurement of the Light Spectrum is Crucial When Observing Super Nova Stars, the Reason Scientists Can Calculate the Velocity at Which the Universe is Expanding, the Reason Astronomers Understand the Universe to Be Increasing in Velocity Rather Than Decreasing, the Period of the Universe When the Increase in Velocity Was First Observed, Dark Energy Determining the Fate of the Universe, and the Result of the Big Freeze Occurring in the Far Future

When we observe the night sky, we are looking back in time at a record of the deep history of the universe. Carbon is inside every single cell within the body. Light elements fusing together through nuclear fusion is actually quite a simple process at its most basic level. Hydrogen by itself is hydrogen, but when 2 hydrogen nuclei are stuck together, beryllium forms, with carbon forming when a third hydrogen nuclei is added to the previous 2 nuclei making up beryllium. This stacking of hydrogen ...

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