Machu Picchu: The Immense Precision Stonemasonry of Machu Picchu Negating the Need for Mortar, the Reason Machu Picchu is Precarious and Difficult to Excavate, the Rise of the Incan Empire During the 15th Century, Incan Engineering Rivalling Ancient Roman Engineering, the Incan Empire Developing Architecture Despite Not Having the Wheel, Iron Tools, and/or Written Language, the Incan Calucation System of Khipu, the Majority of Incan Knowledge Survived by Spain, Peruvian Chronicler Guaman Poma’s Life Coinciding With the Invasion of Spain, Poma Producing Illustrations of Agricultural Techniques, Incan Royalty, and Incan Conquest, Poma and Spanish Texts Depicting the Incan as Insatiable Conquerors, the Size of the Incan Empire, How the Inca Created Agricultural Space, Incan Agricultural Cultivation vs Modern Day Peruvian Agricultural Cultivation, the Short Lifespan of the Incan Empire, the Reason the Spanish Were Able to Easily Topple the Incan Empire, the Last Incan Emperor and the Insurgency Against the Spanish, the Unknown Location of the Lost City of Vilcabamba, the Majority of Human Remains Discovered at Machu Picchu Believed to be Female, the Incan Practice of the “Virgins of the Sun”, the Reason the Lost City of Vilcabamba Was Originally Theorized to Possibly be the Site of Machu Picchu, the Reason This Theory Was Proven Incorrect, Human Remains Discovered at Machu Picchu Erroneously Believed to be Female, the Time Required to Construct Machu Picchu and the Person Believed to Have Founded Machu Picchu, Peruvian Sapa Inca (Monarch) Pachacuti Expanding the Incan Empire From the Cusco Region of Peru, the Basis of Historical Information Relating to Pachacuti, Pachacuti’s Dedication to Architecture, Evidence of Pachacuti’s Influence Upon Architecture Within Machu Picchu, Spanish Records Indicating the Owner of Machu Picchu, Machu Picchu Being Prone to Natural Disaster, the Water Spring and Quarry Readily Available to Machu Picchu, the Reason Many Terraces of Machu Picchu Have Not Yet Been Discovered, the Reason Terraces Were Constructed for Machu Picchu, the Sophisticated Drainage System Implemented at Machu Picchu, the Reason Machu Picchu’s Terraces Never Flood, the Inca Installing More Than 100 Drains Throughout Machu Picchu, the System Machu Picchu Used to Control Rain Water, the Majority of Machu Picchu’s Engineering Being Underground, Fountains Installed Throughout Machu Picchu, the Reason the Terraces Are Constructed Upon 3% Grade Declines, the Number of People Machu Picchu Could Support, the Method the Inca Utilized to Cut Granite Without Metal Tools, the Method the Inca Utilized to Fit and Join Pieces of Granite Together, the Reason Granite Was Purposefully Not Smoothened Prior to Fitting, Stonemasons Smoothing the Granite to During the Final Process of Construction, the Majority of Incan Religious Knowledge Derived From Spanish Missionary Bernabé Cobo, the Reason the Inca Practiced Human Child Sacrifice, the Discovery of Child Sacrifice Within Machu Picchu, Evidence of Child Sacrifice Occurring in the Same Manner Coco Depicted, the Hypothesis of Why Machu Picchu Was Constructed at Such a High Altitude, the Sacred Pillar of Intihuatana, the Alignment of the Intihuatana Pillar, the 4 Mountain Deities of the Inca, the Reason the Incan Monarchs Residence is Near the First (Northern) Mountain, the Function of the Monarchs Residence Unknown to Scientists, the Inca Viewing Corn as a Royal Food, Evidence of Corn Grown at Machu Picchu, Evidence of Machu Picchu Acting as a Royal Estate for Pachacuti, the Death of Pachacuti and the Inca Practice of Mummified Procession Through Machu Picchu, the Spanish Replacing This Procession With Saints, the Hypothesis of How Pachacuti Was Mummified, the Role of Panaca’s Within Incan Society, and the Hypothesis of the Spanish Never Uncovering Machu Picchu Allowing it to Remain Intact During the Modern Day

The precision of the masonry performed at Machu Picchu is so flawless in its execution that mortar was not required to erect the city and is not found anywhere at the site as the cutting of the stone fits together with only centimeters to spare between each block. The Inca were sure footed and unafraid of heights it seems as many of the paths they built in and around the site are narrow and high up, making it a precarious place for archeologists to explore and excavate. The Inca rose to power du...

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