English King Edward I: The Plantagenet Dynasty Ruling England for More Than a Century, the Nickname of Edward I, Round Towers Replacing Rectilinear Towers During the 11th Century, the Reason Round Towers Replaced Rectilinear Towers Within Fortifications, Welsh vs English System of Inheritance, the Reason Edward I Mercilessly Oppressed Wales, Edward I Overwhelming Welsh King Llywelyn’s Military Force, Edward I Plundering the Castle of Dolbadarn to Build a New Castle, Edward I Constructing the Largest Fortresses in European History Allowing Him to Conquer and Colonize Wales, Edward I’s “Iron Ring” Concept, the Site Upon Which Caernarfon Castle is Constructed, Edward I Possibly Ordering the Migration of the Remains of Roman Emperor Magnus Maximus, the Connection Between Maximus and the Dream of Macsen Wledig, the Description of the Dream of Macsen Wledig, the 3 Large Stone Eagles Peached Atop Caernarfon Castle, the Possibility of These Eagles Being Gilded During Antiquity, the Symbolism of the Eagles Installed at Caernarfon Castle, Ancient Roman Designs From Constantinople (Istanbul, Türkiye) Implemented Throughout Caernarfon Castle, Elaborate Syrian Building Practices Implemented at the Krak des Chevaliers Castle, the Birth of Edward I’s Son Inspiring Edward I to Unite England and Wales, Welsh Subjects Imploring Edward I Only to Anoint His Son if the Child Was Born in Wales and Spoke Cymraeg (Welsh), Edward I Appointing His Son the Title of Prince of Wales, the Reason the Title of Prince of Wales is Bestowed Upon All First Born Sons of the English Monarchy, Edward I Importing Craftspeople From Distant Locations to Develop Caernarfon Castle, Edward I Losing Trust Within the Welsh Public, One of the Only Vocations Which Allowed Travel During the Medieval Era, the Origin of the Term “Freemason”, the Concept and Usage of the “Plug and Feathers” Stonemason Technique, the Reason the Plug and Feathers Technique Produces a Singing Noise During Use, Stonemasons Able to Detect When Stone Will Fracture by Tonal Markings, the 7 Levels of Stonemasons, the Reason the Knowledge of Stonemasonry Was Highly Protected, Lodges Setup for Stonemason Apprentices to Live and Learn the Trade Within, How the Process of “Boning In” Works for Stonemasons, Stonemasons Carving Their Masonry Mark to Stamp Their Work, Edward I Constructing Towns Within the Walls of Castle Fortresses No Longer in Use, the Name Used for These Small Towns, Trebuchets Launching Various Materials to Demoralize the Enemy, Edward I Capturing Sterling Castle and Encountering Scottish King Robert the Bruce, the Reason Scotland Was More Difficult to Conquer Than Wales, Robert the Bruce Ordering the Migration of His Family for Their Safety, Edward I Ordering His Son English King Edward II to Besiege Kildrummy Castle, the Reason Direct Assaults Upon Castles Were Rare Throughout Antiquity, the Reason Edward II Could Not Breach Kildrummy Castle and the Technique Used to Exploit English Blacksmith Osbourne (No Last Name) into Providing Entry, Osbourne Betraying Robert the Bruce’s Family and Allowing the English Entry to Kildrummy Castle, the Punishment of Death for Osbourne, the Death of Edward I Beginning a New Era of Castle Warfare, the Scottish Developing New Strategies to Impede the English, Robert the Bruce Capturing and Destroying Castles, Robert the Bruce Introducing Guerilla Warfare, the Strategy of Robert the Bruce’s Plan to Destroy All Castles, Robert the Bruce Demolishing Sterling Castle Post the Battle of Bannockburn, and the Burial Choice of Edward I

The house of Plantagenet had ruled England for more than a century, a powerful royal family with land spanned across France. The son of King Henry III, Edward I was nicknamed “Longshanks” for his intimidating height, large ego, and furious temper. During the 11th century, round towers started replacing square towers when building castles as the weakest point of a square tower is its corner point. Round towers were more difficult to undermine because they didn’t have a visible weakest point. It w...

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