The First Person to Theorize How Stars are Situated Within the Universe

Prior to the 16th century, it was believed that the Earth was the center of the universe with a belt of stars which rotated around it, exactly the same way in which planets orbit the central star of any solar system. These stars were believed to be fixed in their position as the constellations observed upon Earth do not alter greatly in their position or intensity in terms of what the human eye can perceive. Thomas Digges was the first person to propose that the stars are placed at different distances and in different positions, not in a ring of stars which stayed fixated, but rather in an infinite universe as distant points of light. Digges built upon the work of Nicolaus Copernicus by changing Copernicus’ original visual sketch of the planets and their orbital paths in that he removed the stellarum fixarum meaning “fixed stars” in Latin, and built a model in which stars were completely different in their distance relative to the Earth, with brightness controlled by how far or close a particular star was in proximity

The Artificial Black Hole Created by U.S. Scientists

In Menlo Park, United States of America, in May of 2017, scientists working at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center National Accelerator Laboratory (often abbreviated as “SLAC”) fired the world’s most powerful X-ray laser at individual molecules. The reason for this experiment was to observe what would occur when an atom with a lot of electrons is hit by high energy X-ray radiation to observe whether or not those electrons could be knocked out of orbit producing an atom which instead of having many electrons has very few electrons. This system behaved highly unusual and very differently than what scientists expected as it created a miniature black hole like object for 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 (1 quadrillionth) of a second, sucking all remaining electrons into it and exploding the molecule in a dramatic paroxysm

The Original Medical Term for an Intellectually Disabled Person and the Evolution of This Term

The original medical term within psychology for a developmentally disabled person was “simpleton” during the 19th century which eventually became the wider used “moron”, from the Ancient Greek “moros” which means “dull”, a term originally considered neutral and non-pejorative. Because the term “moron” became used pejoratively within society by the 1960’s, the term was altered to become “retard”, from the Latin “retardare” which means “to make slow, delay, keep back, or hinder”. Because this term also became used pejoratively, the term was changed again in 2010 under the Barack Obama administration to become “intellectually disabled”. Other variants have become common place synonyms, often used interchangeably, either correctly or incorrectly, within society (eg. “developmentally delayed”, “specialized needs”, developmentally disabled” etc.)

American Theoretical Physicist Robert Oppenheimer’s Reaction to the First Successful Nuclear Weapon Detonation

After the Trinity nuclear launch test which occurred on July 16, 1945, the first nuclear detonation in human history, when Manhattan Project lead Julius Robert Oppenheimer was asked about the reaction of himself and others on that fateful day Oppenheimer responded, “we knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture the Bhagavad Gita. Vishnu is trying to persuade the prince that he should do his duty and to impress him takes on his multiarmed form and says, Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds. I suppose we all thought that one way or another” (this phrasing/sentence structure while confusing in English, is the correct direct translation from Sanskrit)

The Possibility of Jesus Christ Having a Wife

There is a fragmented piece of papyrus which clearly indicates that Jesus Christ had a wife. The text is written in Coptic, an Ancient Egyptian form of writing. Coptic is the last form of Egyptian, descended from hieroglyphics, and is essentially Greek with a number of additional letters dependent of the dialect. The fragmented piece abbreviated the name of Christ in the exact same way that virtually all Greek texts write Christ’s name, which includes the first letter “iota”, the last letter “sigma”, and a line over top of both letters. The possessive pronoun “ta” is used in front of the term “sahima” always refers to a wife, never a woman who is known as a friend or a family member. The fragment lists Mary Magdalene as the wife of Christ, the person who was present during Christ’s crucifixion, his burial, and was the first person Christ seen upon his resurrection

International Post Secondary Education at No Cost

All public post secondary institutions within Germany, Iceland, Norway, and Finland are free for both domestic and foreign students. Due to the soaring costs of education within North America, many North American students are opting to study abroad to acquire an education whilst reducing the overall debt associated with post secondary education

The First Person to Weigh the Atmosphere

Italian Jesuit Evangelista Torricelli was able to definitively prove that the atmosphere has a specific weight by designing an experiment in which a tube is filled with mercury and then placed into a dish of mercury. Torricelli disovered that when performing this experiment, half of the mercury runs down into the dish and the other half stays within the tubing. Until this point, it was believed impossible to create a negative or empty space as the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle once stated, “nature abhors a vacuum” believing that nature would forever fight against the creation of true and pure nothingness. This is the same reason that an object (e.g. plastic straw or an oil drum barrel etc.) crumbles when all of the air within is extracted. Torricelli was able to overcome this phenomena by using the exteme weight of mercury within a ridged glass tube. The level of mercury left within the tube was a measurement of the weight of the atmosphere, a balancing act between the weight of the mercury and the weight of air pressing down upon this mercury, balancing each other out like scales. Torricelli famously stated, “noi viviamo sommersi nel fondo d’un pelago d’aria” which means “we live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of air” in Italian, and his findings made scientists realize that air was a substance for the first time. Torricelli became the first person to invent the barometer because of his understanding of atmospheric pressure. Despite Aristotle being believed to be correct for millennia, Torricelli definitively proved that air does have weight

The Reason Scientists Can Calculate the Distance and Velocity of Galaxies and Stars

Scientists understand the immense distance between galaxies and stars because of American astronomer Edwin Hubble’s theory of the expanding universe, as it is now understood that galaxies drift from the observer proportional to their distance, meaning the further a star is, the faster it continues to move away from the observer. This phenomenon is referred to as “Hubble–Lemaître’s Law”. Astronomers can calculate how fast a star is moving away from the Earth by observing the Doppler shift of the light it projects, as yellow light becomes red light as a star moves away and yellow light becomes blue light as it approaches closer. A formulae is then used to calculate the distance from the source point. Redshift is observed throughout the universe which confirms that the universe is indeed expanding at a phenomenal rate of speed

The Reason Financial Investment Platform Robinhood Halted the Ability to Trade GameStop Stock in 2021

On January 28, 2021, soon after the opening bell, Robinhood and several other major trading platforms announced the suspension of the ability to purchase GameStop stock, delivering a devastating blow to the WallStreetBets subreddit community which had been helping to elevate the stocks price point by locking out new investors and causing the stock price to tumble dramatically. The rationale for this decision was that extreme volatility could create unforeseen economic problems in the future (e.g. unsustainable economic bubble etc.) but many retail investors viewed this outcome as professional investors leveraging their authority with the U.S. government and the financial industry to stop the public from continuing to financially annihilate large, established trading firms. In addition to the official reason provided, retail trading platforms are not designed to handle the torrent of transactions related to events like the ascendancy of GameStop which played a factor in why Robinhood and other platforms succame to the pressure to halt all future trading of GameStop stock. Robinhood claimed that the company did not have the liquidity on hand to cover the trades and gains being made. Unsurprisingly, the price of GameStop stock rapidly declined, devastating retail investors and highlighting the fact that the investment market is rigged toward the wealthy and powerful perhaps having a distinct advantage over their counterparts. Experts argue that this intervention unnaturally drove the price point of GameStop stock down, acting to reverse the effects of community based organization and investment. It was the clearing houses however that truly forced Robinhood and other trading platforms into capitulating. When a stock is purchased or sold, the transaction does not settle and finalize until 2 business days after the transaction time stamp, something which is unbeknownst to many investors. During this 2 business day period, due to regulation, brokerages and clearing firms are not permitted to use customer capital to fund the collateral use of those 2 business days, therefore being legally required to leverage the firms own capital. Robinhood argued that it did not possess the corporate capital required to facilitate the enormous volume of GameStop stock trades. It should be noted, Robinhood has repeatedly denied that it was under pressure from hedge fund executives, financial organizations, and the professional financial industry as a whole to stop the short squeeze occurring for those who chose to short sell GameStop stock