The Revolutionary Iron Age Technology of the Rotary Quern


During the Iron Age, grain was milled by rubbing a smaller rock against a larger rock with the grain in between the discs. This was back breaking labor which is evidenced by the injuries found upon skeletal remains of ancient people. A quantum leap forward however emerged as the rotary quern, a composite tool comprised of a stone base with a wooden pole or dowel in the center, and a movable rotating top donut shaped piece which was also made of stone, but with a handle so that it could be turned. Grain was placed into the middle of the tool and because the tool was slanted upon a 45 degree angle, gravity would pull grain down. This allowed for a single person to mill much more grain than what would have traditionally been possible using antiquated Stone Age technology. This new design freed up both time spent working as well as the amount of people required to meet a specific quota (e.g. 150 – 200 grams per person per day). Because more people could be better fed, with less effort and resources, the population of those with access to the technology in Britain expanded quickly which occurred around 400 B.C.

Ethanol Energy Production 


Henry Ford called ethanol which is alcohol made from a variety of materials, “the fuel of the future”. John Rockefeller seen ethanol as a threat to his oil monopoly and therefore used his influence to push prohibition of alcohol. Virtually any plant can be used to create ethanol making it a readily available resource worldwide. Most vehicles of any decade require a $150.00 modification to their onboard computer system to be able to tolerate ethanol. Yellow gas caps are indicative of flex-fuel cars which are cars which are adapted to accept and effectively utilize either gasoline or ethanol. Brazil has successfully instituted laws which have made every gas station offer both gasoline and ethanol which has boosted the Brazillian economy into the trillions and allowed Brazil to pay back all foreign debts

Traditional Mongolian Livestock Practices

MongoliaIn Mongolia, horse is traditionally eaten during the winter months, and is referred to as a “cold meat”. The traditional method of slaughtering livestock is to hold it down, make a small incision in its abdomen, and finally separate the heart from the remaining circulatory system. This technique is an incredibly quick process which if done correctly is a fairly humane way to take the life of an animal. The animal may tense its limbs but it rarely if ever makes a sound during the process as it’s such a quick set of movements performed in succession. Mongolians attach a spiritual significance to blood and it is deemed wrong for any blood to touch the ground during the skinning process. Livestock blood is consumed and is considered a valuable food resource, never to be wasted

Water Required To Produce Animal Products


The current system of agriculture specifically for the production animal based meat products requires 3 lbs. of grain feed to yield 1 lbs. of chicken in return. Chicken is the most efficient animal farmed, as it requires 7.5 lbs. of grain feed to produce 1 lbs. of pork, and 10 lbs. of grain feed to generate just 1 lbs. of beef. The cow is the least efficient of any livestock animal. These input and output models are unsustainable. Insects however only require 1.5 lbs. of feed to yield 1 lbs. of protein. The key to future sustainability may be via the consumption of insects. This may sound abhorrent to a person born into a western culture, but insects are consumed all over the world, primarily in impoverished countries in which meat products are scarce and/or expensive to produce and maintain