The Causation and Cure for Colorblindness

colorblind-examination

Being colorblind is more difficult than most people believe as those affected often cannot match clothing colors, tell when fruit is ripe, tell when meat is cooked, or tell when traffic lights are various colors in certain lighting conditions (e.g. flashing red being mistaken for flashing yellow). Color vision is trichromatic with 3 types of cone cells within the eyes which consist of blue, green, and red, which are sensitive to short, medium, and long wavelengths of light, with each cone permitting an observer to view approximately 100 different shades. When all shades are combined, the human eye can observe approximately 1,000,000 (1 million) different colors. Colorblindness can stem from faulty cone cells or an interruption between the pathway of the cones and the brain. Colorblindness has caused vehicular deaths due to accidents around the world which have occurred most often because a driver perceived a light as yellow when it was red in reality. Neuroscientist Professor Jay Neitz (pronounced “nites”), a color researcher at the University of Washington in the U.S. and his spouse, geneticist Maureen Neitz, have teamed up to try and cure colorblindness. Gene therapy is currently being researched around the world and scientists believe that colorblindness will be cured using gene therapy in the near future. Male squirrel monkeys are naturally red-green colorblind and gene studies have demonstrated that these monkeys can be afforded color vision after having a gene delivered into the cone cells within the eye. The gene produced transforms a subset of the green cones within the male squirrel monkeys eyes to force them to become red cones, red cones which have hijacked the squirrel monkeys neural circuitry which was previously utilized solely for blue-yellow color vision, essentially bifurcating into red-green cones and blue-yellow cones so that the monkeys examined developed full color vision like human beings as of 2019. The Neitz’s confirmed this by providing male squirrel monkeys colorblind examinations which when answered correctly, delivered a small treat of food after having undergone gene therapy. Trials in human beings have yet to start as the Neitz’s believe that this step is still a few years away, but expected to initiate during the 2020’s

A Revolutionary Breakthrough in Oncology Treatment

T-cell-cancer

Cancer kills 9,000,000 (9 million) people each year and despite having searched for centuries, a cure has yet to be discovered by scientists. At the center of the immune system is the T cell, a type of leukocyte which respond against bacterial and viral infections alike in an effort to keep their host healthy and alive. T cells determine between threatening and non-threatening foreign and non-foreign bodies within a host by leveraging a molecule upon the surface of all cells referred to as the “T cell receptor”. Jim Allison was the first person to successfully isolate and purify the molecule which recognizes this lock and key model for infectious disease, auto-immune disease, and other innocuous substances within the body be they foreign or internally created. In 1987, French scientist Pierre Golstein and his team discovered a new protein upon the surface of T cells which he named “CTLA-4”. To study CTLA-4 in laboratory rats, Allison had to build and design a rat antibody, a Y shaped protein which would trigger a reaction by CTLA-4. Cancers are mutations and should in theory be visible to the immune system, which is why the scientific community has struggled with the paradox of why tumors go undetected by the immune system for decades. There is no discernible reason as to why the immune system can recognize and resist influenza or any other foreign or domestic body but not cancer. Allison theorized that tumors have evolved an ability to fool the immune system, engaging CTLA-4 which turns on the T cells response to halt its search and destroy measures. Allison hypothesized that if he inserted a Y shaped antibody to block the gap in between the tumor and T cells, the tumor would no longer have its ability to hide, a trait which has been evolved by tumor cells over hundreds of millions of years. This would allow the T cell to infiltrate, attack from within the tumor, shrink, and ultimately kill the growth. Allison spent the next decade trying to turn this revolutionary breakthrough discovery into a medication which could be provided to cancer patients. Allison found Alan Korman, a scientist creating medications for auto-immune disease which provided him with the expert he required to turn this idea into a reality. Korman was tasked with taking the CTLA-4 antibody which Allison and partner Max Krummell developed for laboratory rats, and turn it into a medication which could safely work within human beings with this medication subsequently being named “Ipilimumab” (pronounced “ipi-lim-ooh-mab”). Korman ended up collaborating with a friend from graduate school, Nils Lonberg to accomplish this task. Ipilimumab consists of an intramuscular injection into the leg and a 90 minute intravenous medication drip in comparison to chemotherapy and radiation therapy which take months of treatment to complete and have devastating effects upon overall health as both bad and good tissue are destroyed in an effort to eradicate all tumor cells. Allison’s work with laboratory rats demonstrated that with the help of this newly developed antibody, T cells gained the ability enter into tumors and expand their size in an effort to destroy them from the inside out. This means that the fact that tumors grow initially upon administration is a positive marker and indicative of the medication working as it demonstrates successful infiltration of the tumor cells themselves. Patients often report feeling better after a few treatment sessions, sometimes even a single session, despite computer tomography scans demonstrating that their tumors are growing larger, which under normal circumstances would make a patient feel worse. Some patients even noted increased improvement after having stopped the Ipilimumab treatment, with no further therapy required. On March 25, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released approval for Ipilimumab. Ipilimumab and its successors have treated nearly 1,000,000 (1 million) patients worldwide with many of these patients achieving permanent remission which is essentially the definition of having been cured of cancer. Although these medications do not work in every single case, they have definitively demonstrated to be a miracle medication for hundreds of thousands of people thus far. After completing this revolutionary discovery, Allison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2018 for his series of discoveries related to T cells and their ability to halt cancer in its progression in perpetuity

The Link Between Dementia and Iron

Alzheimer's-Disease

Measuring iron in the brain is the best known way to confirm dementia without performing an autopsy after death. The brain naturally creates tiny bits of iron referred to as “magnetite”. As a human being ages, more and more iron accumulates within the brain. Too much iron however, is a hallmark of dementia. It is theorized that this overproduction of iron is actually due to external factors like pollution rather than naturally occurring phenomena. Dr. Barbara Marr, a world renowned expert and authority in respect to the measurement of metal in incredibly small particles, took thin tissue sections of affected brains obtained during autopsy and observed them under a highly resolved transmission electronmicroscope to review the particles within the neurons of the brain and found 2 different shapes of particle. The magnetite particles are beautifully crystalline, regular and geometric, whilst the opposing particles were rounded in shape, referred to as “spherls” or “nanospheres”, rounded in shape because they were originally molten droplets. For every 1 biologically manufactured magnetite, 100 artificially implanted foreign particles of iron are found within the brains of those affected by this condition as confirmed by a study which took place in Mexico City, Mexico. Although not definitely proven, the shape of these secondary particles is remarkably similar to that of airborne pollution, which suggests to scientists that there is a discernible correlation between the 2 types

Scientific Explanation of the Abortion Procedure

egg-and-sperm.png

Abortions can be carried out in 2 ways, either surgically or pharmacologically by taking medication. Pharmacologically speaking, the secondary option is indicative of an induced miscarriage. Women can choose this option until 10 weeks into their pregnancy. The medication Mifepristone RU486 (pronounced “miff-eh-priss-stone”) was approved by the Federal Drug Administration in 2000, and allows women to undergo the abortion procedure within the privacy of their own home. Mifepristone is taken first which causes the process of an abortion to start by halting the growth process and detaching the infant from the womb. 24 hours later, Misoprostol (pronounced “miso-prah-stull”) helps to induce the cramping and bleeding which will help the body push the developing fetus out of the uterus. Most physicians offer intravenous sedation to help comfort those who undergo an uncomfortable and sometimes painful procedure with social stigma attached. Most patients prefer surgical abortion as it allows them to psychologically leave the abortion behind them, in the clinic. The procedure itself is incredibly safe and requires that a woman be placed into stirrups after which a physician performs a bimanual examination to feel the positioning of the uterus, a speculum is placed into position and the cervix is cleaned, a small clip is placed upon the top of the cervix so that the uterine canal is straight, after which the cervix is then dilated and the pregnancy is removed via suction. The entire process takes 2 – 5 minutes and complications are incredibly rare. One of the most important components of safety in terms of procedure is to ensure that all pregnancy tissue has been removed from the uterus. Physicians take any tissue removed, usually to a specialized room within the clinic, so that it can be rinsed off and examined in a dish with a backlight which allows for confirmation of all the tissue which should be present in respect to the length of gestation prior to the abortion procedure. This helps physicians monitor for possible complications which may arise in the future. Prior to 10 weeks, a fetus is a small sack of tissue with nothing recognizable as human, but after the 10 week mark, various bits of tissue become recognizable as human parts

Whilst I rarely if ever will submit an opinion upon this blog, I feel that it is necessary to state that it is imperative that we remember, women are not simply vessels for the carrying of multiple pregnancies, rather they are human beings who deserve the right to have control over their own lives, and it is crucial that world law uphold this basic human right, despite the anti-abortion collective which appears unmoved by rational arguments brought forth by qualified healthcare professionals, those who have spent their entire academic and professional careers training to specialize in the highly complicated and ever changing field of medicine and healthcare

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The Danger of Air Pollution Gaining Access to the Brain

air-pollution

The reason pollution has a metallic taste and scent and that it burns the eyes when exposed to it is because the particles of air pollution are tiny enough that they can travel through nerve cells, and gain direct entry to the brain, where the olfactory bulbar meets the frontal cortex, as there is no blood-brain barrier at this point. The body protects itself through the blood-brain barrier, which means that particles within the bloodstream, cannot get directly into the brain. This system has a slight flaw however as the nose acts as a direct conduit for incredibly tiny particles to bypass this security mechanism

The Scientific Study of Consciousness After Decapitation In Rodents

laboratory-rat

Brainwave activity in laboratory rats has been measured after decapitation. Scientists have determined that the brain stays conscious for 4 seconds after decapitation. Laboratory rat brain cells could theoretically start working again if intervention is quick enough supplying the brain with adequate oxygen and glucose

Possible Future Technologies Which May Be Used In a Judicial Capacity

brain-electroencephalogram

Subjects who display increased alpha wave activity, specifically within the temporal region of the brain when being scanned with electroencephalograph imaging is typically indicative of a person recalling a memory. Subjects who display increased alpha wave activity within the frontal region of the brain when being scanned with that same imaging technology is indicative of a person fabricating or conceptualizing a story. These types of scans may be used in the future within the criminal justice system when determining whether or not a person is telling the truth or fabricating an alternate summary of events

Possible Hidden Message Within Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel

Sistine-Chapel

Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel depicts God enthralled in a red cape like textile, but what’s truly interesting is that the outline of this image directly matches that of a bifurcated brain if observed from the side (e.g. either hemisphere of the brain separated from its other half). Whether or not this was intentional is debatable. It has also been suggested that this shape is designed to represent a uterus, that from which all life is sprung

Weight Loss During Periods of Starvation or Fasting

bariatric-surgery-intention

1 in 210 obese men and 1 in 124 obese women will lose weight following restrictive caloric diets. That is a failure rate of 99.5% for men and 99.2% for women. These values are even lower for those suffering from morbid obesity. Studies have demonstrated that 4 days of continuous fasting does not drop basal metabolic rates, rather it increases metabolic rate by approximately 12%. This mechanism is purposely designed by evolution because a metabolism which slows down greatly due to gaps in finding food, would cause lethargy and eventually death to the organism. Animals are programmed to increase metabolic rates during periods of starvation as a way to ensure the body continues to forage and hunt for food. Whilst fasted, the human body first burns glycogen found within the liver, then moves to body fat and muscle, and then finally more essential parts of the body like tissues and organs when all other non-essential resources have been exhausted. Fasting increases weight loss by 6x in comparison to caloric restriction