The Ancient Greek Ruler Draco and the Ancient Greek Reformer Solon 

ancient-Greek-law

Draconian laws which are associated with being especially unfair and cruel stem from the tyrant Draco who commissioned them in 621 B.C.. Draco forced farmers who couldn’t pay their debts into slavery and simple crimes like stealing a cabbage were punishable by death. The wise reformer Solon saved Athens by freeing all indebted slaves, eliminating the death penalty for all but extreme cases, and wrestling the political power out of the hands of noble bloodlines by establishing a council of 400 citizens to run the city, a bold step during its day, to untether governance from inheritance

The Ancient Greek Philosopher Thales 

ancient-Greek-philosophers

The Ancient Greek philosopher Thales, considered the world’s first philosopher by Aristotle, used geometry to calculate the distance of ships from the shoreline, the height of the Great Pyramids of Egypt, was the first person to predict a solar eclipse, and posited a cause for earthquakes. Thales perceived that the earth floated upon water like a giant raft which of course was wrong, but his scientific inquiry into the reasons as to why things occur rather than attributing it to the god’s was the first glimmering scintillation of a revolutionary way of thinking. Thales inspired more great minds like Pythagoras who developed the concept that numbers and mathematics could explain the universe, and Hippocrates who developed an ethical code for practicing medicine

The Hypocrisy of the Ancient Romans Towards the Ancient Druids 

ancient-Druids

The Druids were a terrifying spectacle to the ancient Romans, even to those who were battle hardened soldiers. The Roman historian Tacticus in 60 A.D. described the Druid’s as, “the enemy in a close packed array of armed men interspersed with women dressed like furies in funeral black, with streaming hair and brandishing torches, round about were the druids, their hands raised to heaven, pouring out dire curses”. Celtic Iron Age priests ruled Druid territory with an iron grip based upon religious intimidation and human sacrifice. The Druids were believed by the Romans to be maligned priests who held supernatural powers. The Romans wanted to eliminate the Druids as they viewed them as savages and barbaric due to their tradition of human sacrifice. Ironically, this was during the same era of the Circus Maximus and Colosseum holding gladiator battles which often went to the death

The World’s Oldest Form of Writing 

cuneiform

Cuneiform (pronounced “kyu-neh-ah-form”) originated in modern day Iraq, in a region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, a region referred to as “Mesopotamia”. Cuneiform is the oldest writing system ever developed. In 1750 B.C., a Babylonian cuneiform clay tablet accounted the story of Noah’s Ark, but what makes this tablet unique is that the story shows up 1000 years before it does within the Christian Bible. The stories between the tablet and the biblical epic match perfectly however the tablet contains additional details such as the fact that the boat which was used was circular in shape

The Arc of the Covenant

Ark-of-the-Covenant

The Hebrew term for “ark” translates to “closet” or “cupboard” when taken literally. It’s estimated that it took 60 kilograms of gold to build the Ark of the Covenant, a feat which would require nearly 20,000 wedding rings to provide a modern perspective. The ark was measured in cubits which was a biblical measurement approximately the length of an adult male forearm, with the ark itself being 4 cubits in length by 1.5 cubits height and 1.5 cubits wide. The ark is described within the Bible as the “throne of God”. This symbolism was most likely borrowed from the Egyptians as a similar shrine was found within the tomb of Tutankhamun, guarded by the Egyptian god Anubis, remarkably similar to the way in which it is described to be guarded by God in the Bible. Portable shrines were incredibly common in ancient Egypt and although the Bible states that the Ark of the Covenant was instructed by God, it clearly was manufactured using borrowed ideas, religious motifs, and building techniques. Although Ethiopia vehemently protests that the Ark of the Covenant resides within a single temple in Ethiopia, most experts believe that it was destroyed by the Babylonians during the destroying of the temple in which the Ark of the Covenant was held, in 586 A.D.. The alternate theory is that the Ark of the Covenant has simply fallen apart due to the ravages of time and therefore no longer exists anywhere in the world

Physical Size of Neanderthals

Neanderthal

Neanderthals were on average 6” shorter than human beings, due to their vast musculature caused by androgen hormones within their bodies which may have caused them to act more aggressive than their human counterparts. Neanderthals were barrel-chested with pectoral muscles twice the size that of a human beings chest. While Neanderthals were shorter than humans, their extra muscle mass would mean that a Neanderthal and human being could weigh the same mass but the Neanderthal would be up to 90% stronger than the human

City States Minting Currency

minting-currency

Throughout history, city states were permitted the legal status to design and manufacture their own unique currency which inevitably lead to tens of thousands of different designs on both the fronts and backs of coins, throughout the ancient world. Surprisingly this chaotic monetary system was not an issue for commerce as each coin manufactured was approximately the same size and weight with the same amount of silver or gold smelted into it, making trade relatively straightforward as values rarely fluctuated and could be traded at their intended face value regardless of the geographic location they were manufactured in. This system eventually gave way to the modern day system developed during the 18th century in the United States of America which stated that only the government of a nation was legally permitted to mint currency, with the size and metals being utilized deemed irrelevant as the currency depended solely upon how valuable the currency was in comparison to the world market, a counter balance which is heavily influenced by the gross domestic product of both the import and export of every country involved in trade alongside many other smaller yet equally important intrinsic factors (e.g. political climate or instability)