Ancient Egyptian Influence Upon European and North


Prior to the development of the methods and tools used for scientific analysis, many Europeans regarded Egypt as the birthplace of civilization. This meant that Napoléon Bonaparte was free to invade Egypt because the French people viewed his campaigns as a way of leading themselves back to the source of their roots. Bonaparte did not only bring soldiers, he also brought scholars who would observe and record the knowledge gained while in Egypt. This acquisition of knowledge made information about Egypt available to the public through books filled with illustrations and writing about Egyptian culture, its people, and its landmarks. Elements of ancient Egypt started to work their way into European culture and even reach out west as far as the new colonies of the United States of America, with examples like the pyramid on the back of U.S. currency and the obelisk Washington Monument in Washington D.C.. Bonaparte’s campaign was the most significant European foray into the Islamic world since the Crusades

The Original Target of Nuclear Warfare in Japan During World War II 


The Ryōan-ji (pronounced “rai-oh-anne-jee”) temple garden in Kyoto, Japan was the intended target of the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan during World War II. The American Secretary of State Harry Stimpson, who visited the Ryōan-ji temple garden during his travels throughout the world, lobbied against the bombing of this garden and other gardens around it located in Kyoto as he had appreciated the gardens beauty and significance to Japanese culture. Because Stimpson was steadfast in his opposition to the bombing of the Ryōan-ji Temple garden, the site was spared with Nagasaki substituted as Nagasaki was considered an equally suitable target

Middle Eastern Tile Craftspeople


Middle Eastern tile craftspeople developed the technique of hand made tiles by placing refined clay into a mold and etching 3 finger marks into the back of the tile. This method was devised to ensure that the tile would be able to grip the grout placed behind it upon the wall during installation. These same craftspeople created the method of slowly heating their molded tiles over 36 hours to temperatures above 540 degrees Celsius. At temperatures which reach this height and when provided enough time, the particles within the clay fuse together which turns the clay into ceramic. The final step to this process was the addition of glaze which was essentially liquid glass. The only step which proceeded this finishing of the tile was the painting of said tile, which was usually performed using bright contrasting colors following geometric patterns which provide a dazzling array of shapes when viewed from afar

Space Archeologist


The term “space archeologist” is used to describe “archeologists who use National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellites to discover artifacts hidden below the surface level of the Earth”. Measuring a chemical signature seen only with satellite imagery in a process referred to as “chemical spectrography”, this new and innovative method of archaeological surveying measures off gassing from the ground (which is invisible to the naked eye) by harnessing light from the infrared light spectrum. Subtle differences in chlorophyll indicate changes in vegetation health as plants growing on top of ancient relics are less healthy than their counterparts near by. This allows space archeologists to create maps of what’s below the Earth (e.g. pyramids and amphitheaters)

Cement and Concrete


Cement and concrete are not the same thing although they are commonly incorrectly used interchangeably. Cement is an ingredient of concrete which is a very fine powder made from limestone, sand, clay, iron ore, water, and stone. Proportions of these ingredients are crushed and heated in a kiln to form what is referred to as “clinker”. The clinker is crushed again with gypsum and a number of other ingredients, and the result is a fine powder which is then referred to as “cement”. Aggregates in concrete such as sand and stone, coarse and fine, are for volume only and are not active ingredients in the hydration process

Chartres Cathedral


Chartres, France (pronounced “shar-trey”) is a village which built the worlds tallest cathedral of its period. Standing a staggering 180′ tall, and taking 66 years to build, the Chartres cathedral was the first cathedral to use flying buttresses and be constructed in a cross shape as opposed to the classical rectangular shape the cathedrals of this period typically exemplified. Chartres cathedral is so grand in stature that Napoléon Bonaparte once said “atheists would feel uneasy inside these walls”