Stellar parallax is a measurement technique developed by Friedrich Bessel to measure far away objects in deep space. The process of stellar parallax involves measuring an object from two separate vantage points hinging upon the fact that the object being observed will appear to move a lot more than objects further behind it (e.g. if an observer closes one eye and views their finger in front of a building, and then repeats this act with their second eye closed and the first eye open, the observers finger will appear as though it has moved much further left or right, relative to the other objects behind it). Because Bessel developed a method of calculation to take advantage of this phenomena, astronomers now have the ability to map grand distances with relative accuracy. Bessel worked out that if an observer took an image of a star when the Earth was at either side of its orbit around the sun, it would be possible to observe the star shifting in its position. By knowing how much a star shifts, it is possible to calculate the distance the star is from its observation point on Earth. Bessel surmised that the relatively close star 61 Cygni must be 100,000,000,000,000 (100 trillion) kilometers away from the Earth because of his parallax distance method. This technique unfortunately is severely limited as the diameter of the Earth’s orbit is only 300,000,000 (300 million) kilometers which means that the parallax method can only measure objects up to a factor of 1,000,000x (1 million) the Earths orbital rotation, allowing for a maximum distance of 300,000,000,000,000 (300 trillion) kilometers which is only a tiny fraction of the size of the Milky Way Galaxy or the universe as a whole

# Category: Astrophysics

# The End of the Universe and the Big Crunch Theory

The likelihood of a Big Crunch in which the universe expands to the point that it then collapses inward upon itself is not very probable as mathematical calculations demonstrate that there simply isn’t enough mass in the entire universe to be able to revert into into an enormous compaction. The idea of the universe folding in upon itself can be visualized by imagining a person throwing a ball in the air. The Earth has enough mass to bring a thrown ball back down to the ground but if thrown faster than the speed of escape velocity which is 11.186 kilometers per second, a thrown ball would never come back down, in fact, it would travel an infinite distance over an infinite timespan before the Earth mathematically had enough time and mass to pull the ball back to its starting position. The universe is represented by the Earth in that it acts as a force upon other objects and the ball represents all matter throughout the universe in this thought experiment

# The Advent of the Imaginary Number Concept

The value of “i” which represents an imaginary number is quite useful for balancing seemingly impossible tasks like when resolving problems with electricity or wireless technologies. Working with wave functions involves working with the value of an imaginary number because of its ability to resolve mathematical problems. If numbers are thought of as a straight horizontal line on an X axis, with 0 in the middle, with all negative numbers on the left hand side of zero (e.g. -1, -2, -3 etc.) and all positive numbers on the right hand side of zero (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.), then imaginary numbers would be plotted upon the Y coordinate axis, displayed vertically (e.g. +1i, +2i, +3i going up or -1i, -2i, -3i going down etc.). This allows imaginary numbers to be treated the same as regular numbers, just upon a different plane of axis. Imaginary numbers are essential to certain tasks like aircraft radio tower control as imaginary numbers allow for technologies like Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR)

# How Phosphorescence Works

Glow in the dark products work because of a chemical additive which allows the product to absorb energy on one frequency, and reemit it as visible light which is a different frequency. Zinc sulphide and strontium aluminate are the most commonly used phosphors for photoluminescent products as they reemit energy over a considerably long period. When light is shone upon a glow in the dark object, incoming photons excite the phosphor molecules and these molecules then release that energy taken in by releasing photons and creating a dim light glow. Different phosphors release energy at different rates and thus, the slower a phosphor releases energy, the longer it will glow. The human eye is most sensitive to green light in the dark which is why night vision technology was traditionally created with a green tint

# Mathematical Evidence of the Observable Universe Actually Being Part of a Multiverse

There are 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^{80} or 100 quinquavigintillion subatomic particles in the universe, often referred to as the “Eddington number” which means that mathematically speaking, eventually after shuffling these particles over and over, the same result is bound to occur. This is precisely why the theory of the multiverse appears to be valid. These particles cannot be rearranged an infinite amount of times and therefore identical copies of the observable universe surely must show up in other parallel universes, as well as countless variations of the universe in which conditions are similar to the observable universe, but still different in some significant or insignificant manner. In a multiverse scenario, every single possible outcome is played out. After an estimated 10^{10^100} or 1 googolplex (1 googol being 10 with 100 zeros behind it and a googolplex being 10 with 1 googol zeros behind it) meters away from the observable universe in terms of linear measurable distance in space, another universe should theoretically be in existence already, a universe which is identical to the observable universe in every way imaginable. Because nearly every universe is uniquely different, the laws of physics could and should be vastly contrasting to what an observer within the observable universe experiences. It is estimated that there are between 10^{10^16} – 10^{10^10^7} or 100 septentrigintillion – 100 trecenquattuortrigintillion different universes. This estimate is predicated upon the fact that the amount of information which a single individual can absorb is 10,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^{16} or 10 quadrillion bits of data within their lifetime, which is equivalent to 10^{10^16} or 100 septentrigintillion configurations, and this means that the human brain is physically incapable of distinguishing more than 10^{10^16 }or 100 septentrigintillion universes

# Robert Goddard’s Liquid Fueled Rocket Concept

Robert Goddard devised the idea of liquid kerosene and liquid oxygen being mixed together to create a fierce, but most importantly, a controllable flame for propulsion. When kerosine reacts with oxygen, the result is an incredibly hot, rapidly expanding gas which when channeled through a nozzle, creates enormous thrust. On March 16, 1926, Goddard launched the world’s first liquid fuel rocket bearing this concept. This rocket did not travel fast nor far but it did demonstrate a proof of concept making space flight theoretically possible for the first time in human history

# Re-useable Rockets for Space Exploration

Rockets are traditionally not re-used unlike aviation aircraft because making a landing from space means that a craft must come back to Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of 8 kilometers per second, a much more difficult task than that of landing a commercial aircraft at a cruising speed of just over 800’ per second