How Breath Alcohol Analysis Works

Alcohol shows up in the breath because it gets absorbed from the mouth, throat, stomach and intestines into the bloodstream. Alcohol­ is not digested upon absorption, nor chemically changed in the bloodstream. As blood circulates through the lungs, some of the alcohol moves across the membranes of the lung’s alveoli, into the air stored within the lungs. Because the alcohol concentration in the breath is related to the concentration in the blood, an approximate measurement can be identified when using a simple ratio formula of breath alcohol to blood alcohol which is 2100:1. This means that 2100 milliliters of alveolar air will contain the same amount of alcohol as 1 milliliter of blood

The Fallacy of Moss Always Growing Upon the North Side of Trees

Moss does not only grow on the north side of trees, as it is commonly believed by many. Moss typically grows on the north side but this rule only applies in the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere, moss mostly grows on the south side of trees. The reason for this inversion is that in the northern hemisphere, because of the tilt of the Earth on its axis, the sun almost always appears to be a little south of directly overhead. That’s why rooms with windows facing south are brighter than rooms with windows facing north. This is important for moss because the north sides of trees within the northern hemisphere are shadier and therefore wetter. The south sides of trees get more sunlight, so water evaporates faster there

The Country With the Most Vegetarians Per Capita and the First Notation of Vegetarianism Within Western Literature

The country with the most vegetarians per capita is India, with 39% of the country identifying as vegetarian and/or vegan, a value which equates to 276,000,000 (276 million) people. This is primarily due to the dominant religion within India which is Hinduism, a faith which 79.8% of the country subscribes to, and to a lesser extent, Sikhism, a faith which promotes vegetarianism and is subscribed to by 1.7% of the country. Mexico trails India for the second spot internationally with 19% of the country identifying as vegetarian and Brazil takes the third spot with 14% having adopted this diet. The first time vegetarianism is mentioned within recorded western history is by the Ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras around 500 BC, however it is unclear if this is the first recorded text worldwide

The Reason it is Impossible to Store, Purchase, and/or Sell Live Tuna

It is virtually impossible to store, purchase, and/or sell tuna fish live as tuna die shortly after capture. This is due to the fact that tuna breathe using ram-gill ventilation, which means that they must constantly stay in motion to have water pass over their gills and feed their body with oxygen. Motion is required continuously, exerted during both hours spent awake and time spent asleep. As the tuna is in motion, water flows into its mouth and over its gills and gill filaments, diffusing oxygen into the tunas bloodstream while simultaneously releasing carbon dioxide. This function is performed equally well at both slow and high rates of speed as long as consistent motion is achieved

The Fallacy of Transgender Female Athletes Competing at the Same Biological Level as Cisgender Female Athletes

It is a common misconception that transgender athletes who transition from male to female have the same sexual dimorphisms and therefore the same athletic capabilities and baseline statistics as cisgendered women when competing within athletic competition. Cisgender males on average have 40% more upper body muscle/strength than cisgendered women and 30% more lower body muscle/strength than cisgendered women, although these are mere approximations which span the entire world population which is why this is not always the case. Female hormones can reduce these advantages by 5% – 10% within the human body of elite athletes, but it is at the current time, as of 2023, impossible to completely reverse the advantage of biological male puberty for transgender male to female athletes. Surprisingly, hormone therapy rapidly reduces hemoglobin levels to that of cisgender women however all other baseline statistics remain relatively the same post transition when using hormone replacement therapy. Even after 36 months of treatment, virtually all other baseline levels are higher than the average cisgender female. These discoveries suggest that physical strength may be preserved in transgender women during the first 3 years of hormone replacement therapy. It should be noted, if the athlete does not go through male puberty, these male hormone induced advantages do not apply. This is because these traits are largely associated with testosterone but not entirely

The Reasons Public Bathroom Stalls Do Not Touch the Ground

The reason commercial and industrial buildings have bathroom stalls which do not reach the floor is multifaceted. The design of doors which do not touch the ground provides a myriad of benefits including being easier to clean for custodial staff (e.g. reaching all areas with mop and bucket or pressure washer etc.), providing emergency access for first responders (e.g. elderly person who is unfamiliar and becomes confused thus falling down, an unconscious person who has suffered a health issue, wanted person hiding from law enforcement etc.), acting as a deterrent for unintended uses (e.g. using illicit drugs, consuming alcohol underage, sexual intercourse etc.), providing better air circulation between stalls so that odors do not linger, and limiting the spread of bacteria which reside upon the floor. In addition to these main reasons, it is additionally more cost effective as less material is used and the same door size fits and can be used for virtually all establishments, it is easier to escape from if a lock jams occurs, and toilet paper can be shared between stalls

The Origin of the Use of Analgesia While Giving Birth

Analgesia was not an option while giving birth until the mid 19th century as pain was believed to be a crucial part of the birthing experience. In 1591, Euphemia Maclean, a woman from Edinburgh, Scotland requested analgesia during the birth of her twins and was burned at the stake for this request. Analgesia started with Queen Victoria who used chloroform for the birth of her 8th child Leopold. It was Victoria’s experience that she told to others which made the practice catch on so quickly as Victoria felt that analgesia was an amazing invention which helped her immensely. In the 1950’s, the no medication approach swung back into fashion with Dr. Grantly Dick-Read, the first modern physician to suggest against analgesia as he believed the pain of childbirth to be psychological

Botulism Toxin (Botox) Disabling Portions of the Human Brain Related to Emotion

Because human beings interpret emotions by mirroring one another, botulism toxin, more commonly referred to by the brand name “Botox”, when injected into the forehead, alters brain activity connected with various emotional states. The temporary paralysis of facial muscles from the use of Botox disables a person’s ability to mirror the person(s) they are interacting with. It also hinders their ability to read and interpret the facial expressions of others. Surprisingly, this information is being leveraged within studies of depression and patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, as it is believed that temporary paralysis of the forehead may help aid those who are experiencing clinical depression and/or a borderline personality disorder

The Discovery of Bacterium Causing Stomach Ulcers

For decades the medical community believed gastric ulcers were directly related to stress with the only options for relief being antacids and surgery. In the early 1980’s, Australian physicians Barry Marshall and Robin Warren discovered through biopsies of gastric ulcers, that nearly all were overrun by helicobacter pylori bacteria. Helicobacter pylori only seems to infect humans, as studies performed upon pigs and rats were unsuccessful as these animals were unable to contract the bacterium. Marshall decided to infect himself and within 5 days of doing so, he started running to the bathroom each morning to throw up. Tests demonstrated that Marshall had gastritis, a precursor to an ulcer. Marshall took antibiotics and was cured, proving once and for all that ulcers are caused by bacteria not stress. In 2005, Marshall and Warren won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their findings

The Reason Most Cats Adore Cat Nip

Catnip is a perennial herb which is a member of the mint family, specifically the species of the genus Nepeta (pronounced “nah-pee-tah”) in the family Lamiaceae (pronounced “lah-me-yay-see-aye”). The chemical compound in the nepeta cataria plant which attracts and affects felines is nepetalactone (pronounced “nah-pee-tal-ack-tone”). Nepetalactone is indigenous to Southern and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, and parts of China. When cats consume catnip orally the compound acts as a sedative, but when inhaled for its scent, it causes short bursts of hyperactivity. Nepetalactone is extracted via steam distillation and acts as a natural mosquito and fly repellent. Several scientific studies have demonstrated that leopards, cougars, and various species of lynx often react to catnip in a similar manner to their domestic house cat cousins, whilst lions and tigers may react strongly, but may also have little or no reaction whatsoever. 33% of cats are unaffected by catnip with the behavior theorized to be hereditary in nature. In 1962, it was discovered that susceptibility to catnip may be directly related to the Mendelian-dominant gene. Other plants can have similar effects upon felines including the roots and leafs of the valerian plant, silver vine which is sometimes referred to as “matatabi”, and Tatarian honeysuckle wood. Cats who do not respond to nepeta cataria are more likely to respond to one, some, or all of these alternatives plants. In addition to its use with cats, nepeta cataria is also a popular ingredient in herbal tisanes and teas, and is highly valued for its sedative and relaxant properties”