Giorgio Vasari; The Person Accredited with Creating the Term “Renaissance”

giorgio-vasari-renaissance

The person who is accredited with creating the term “renaissance” is Giorgio Vasari. Vasari published a book entitled “Le Vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori” which means “The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects” in Italian. The book is often shortened in its title and called “The Lives of Artists”. This book has over the centuries become the most influential art book of all time. Within the preface of the book, Vasari uses the term “rinascita” which means “rebirth” in Italian, to describe what was going on around him. Vasari stated that under the ancient Greeks and ancient Roman’s, art and civilization reached it’s highest levels of perfection, and that when the barbarians which are modern day Germans, arrived in Italy, the arts as a whole fell to ruins. The Renaissance is considered to have occurred between 1400 – 1600, with the beginning and end dates being slightly vague on each end

The Freemasonic Society

freemason

As of 2012, there are an estimated 6,000,000 (6 million) Freemasons worldwide. It is believed by some experts that the Freemason fraternity was established during the building of Solomon’s Temple, which occurred in 1000 B.C.. The original universal symbol of the Freemason society has a geometric compass at the top, letter “G” in the middle, and a squared ruler at the bottom. The compass is considered the main tool of the Freemason and stands for the perfect circle it draws in which a Freemason can stand. It is believed by the Freemasons that when having gone outside of this circle, a Freemason will find trouble and lose control. The only way to enlarge the circle is to seek knowledge. The square is iconography designed to represent wisdom and virtue. The letter “G” represents the “grand architect of the universe” but also can be interpreted as God or geometry, as it is believed by some experts that God is a grand architect and that geometry, specifically sacred geometry is the language of the universe. The goal of the Freemason organization is to promote free thinking, as it is believed that doing so is the only way to inoculate oneself from any tyrannical person or organization set out to enslave civilization

Elon Musk’s Innovative Tesla Battery

Tesla-Model-3

Tesla vehicles use approximately 8000 small cell batteries close to the size of a double A (AA) battery, only slightly larger with a length of 65 millimeters and a width of 18 millimeters. Tesla originally used this battery size because of its wide abundance but will be switching to a slightly larger size with a length of 70 mm and a width of 21 mm when their gigafactory is complete. Tesla claims that these new batteries will be the best and cheapest option in the world. Competitor manufacturers use different kinds of batteries than Tesla because of their belief in how the technology works and how efficient it can be

The Sale of Meat In New York City, United States of America During the 19th Century

19th-century-butcher

Butchers in the 19th century often turned rotting meat into sausage so that the meat it was made up of was unidentifiable and palatable. Butchers added the chemical compound Borax which is sodium borate to cover up the scent of the meat because the boracic acid would kill any bacteria present upon the meat. It was later discovered that Borax is ideal for keeping wounds clean, killing cockroaches, and cleaning floors, which provides a clear frame of reference in terms of its potential safety hazards when consumed. The meat would still smell and taste bad and would cause those who consumed it to become sick but despite this, butchers would add red clothing dye made from coal tar which sometimes had arsenic in it to freshen up the grey and brown color of the meat so that it was more visually presentable to consumers. Finally, stale bread or cookies were added to bind everything together before the meat was sold

Ancient Stained Glass Manufacturing

ancient-stained-glass

The manufacturing of stained glass is an ancient technology which dates back so far that the ancient Egyptians knew how to do it 2000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Medieval Europe inherited this form of technology but did not invent it as is common belief. Deep, rich blue glass was very difficult to make and therefore needed to be imported from southern Italy. The deep blues which the Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France is so famous for can historically be traced through documentation to fragments coming from the Byzantine Empire as well as the Roman Empire. These imports were melted down and used to create new glass. Most colors and dyes came from the natural world in the forms of roots, berries, barks, leaves, minerals, and crushed insects, but the most prized colors were imported into Europe from the east, specifically India and China using Ottoman trade routes. The simple luck of geography made Venice, Italy an incredibly wealthy city as it acted as a nexus between the east and west. The blue hue referred to as “ultramarine” was the most expensive color to acquire and therefore it was almost always saved for depictions of the Virgin Mary, typically in her cloak or some other form of clothing, as Mary was depicted as the focal point of every painting she appeared within. Ultra Marine came from the mineral of lapis lazuli and when it was ground up into powder, some parts would inevitably become smaller than others which allowed these particles to reflect more light and provide a deeper, richer color to work with and appreciate. Vermillion Red was almost as precious as ultramarine, and has been used in Europe for hundreds of years in various illuminated manuscripts. Made from the mineral cinnabar, vermillion was adopted in places outside of Europe like meso-America for painting, India for bindi dots, and China to create lacquerware

The Early Formation of Earth 

early-Earth

During the early days of the solar system, dozens of planets orbited the sun. It is thought that these planets collided and with this collision came intense heat which melted and welded rocks and minerals together. It is theorized that Mercury was only hit once hence it’s small size, Mars not at all, Venus 8x, and Earth 10x primarily because Earth it is the largest of the rocky planets. The last impact towards Earth is thought to have occurred 4,500,000,000 (4.5 billion) years ago which gave Earth its iron core; the lighter debris floated back above Earth and rotated around it which gave Earth rings similar to Saturn. Scientists now know that Earth was hit by rocks which came from Mars. It is thought that primitive microbial life would be able to withstand the journey from Mars to Earth. Earth had enough gravity to hold its oceans which allowed for constant changes in weather. It is thought that life began on Earth 4,300,000,000 (4.3 billion) years ago and that life became sophisticated 2,800,000,000 (2.8 billion) years ago. Despite the Earth being hit 6x catastrophically which was once thought to have sterilized all life, primitive life forms lay dormant in suspended animation within the salt rock which was produced from the immense heat during each catastrophic event. The microbes lay waiting until conditions became more favorable at which time they started reproducing and thriving. Scientists tested this first hand by drilling into salt rock which was created during a catastrophic event to release 200,000,000 (200 million) year old sea water which held tiny microbes called asilospermians which were reanimated when left within a nutrient rich solution for 4 months

Methanol Energy Production 

methanol-plant

Methanol is the simplest alcohol to make and is the most probable choice fuel for future Mars missions. Ethanol only requires water and carbon. Methanol is colloquially referred to as “wood alcohol” and/or “natural gas”. Professional racing car drivers prefer methanol as a fuel source due to the fact that it’s much less likely to catch fire after a crash. Methanol burns incredibly clean in comparison to gasoline and methanol costs 33% of what gasoline costs to manufacture and distribute