Engineering Pipes For Liquid Flow


The most efficient way to utilize gravity to carry water across long distances is to use a 4 degree slope. Doing so allows water to flow through the pipeline unimpeded whilst allowing a steady flow of air into the pipe so as not to create pressure upon the joints of any bends. Anything above 4 degrees will cause an area of turbulence referred to as a “hydraulic jolt”

Aircraft Carriers


Landing an aircraft on an aircraft carrier at sea is considered the most difficult task in aviation. The first aircraft ever landed on the deck of a steamship was accomplished in 1911, just a few short years after the Wright brothers had the first airplane become airborne. The task was accomplished by having ropes and sandbags run horizontally across the wooden landing stage on top of the deck of the ship. The rope caught a hook on the bottom of the landing aircraft and slowed it down, with each bag adding more and more weight. The engineering of this practice is still in use today, with the only significant difference being the components used, which are now high tension steel cables. Marines and navy officers jointly train for their wings, but navy officers are more likely to take off at sea, whilst marine officers are more likely to take off from land

General Motors


General Motors, through various shell companies, purchased the Los Angeles, United States of America, mass transit system and deconstructed it so that only vehicles and highways would survive the transition. General Motors understood that people wanted and needed a simple way get where they needed to be within a reasonable amount of time and doing away with public transit meant that these people would have no alternative other than to purchase a vehicle, with the goal being for these people to purchase from General Motors. By 1960, the last remaining trolleys were shut down and taken to the nearby Santa Monica Bay to be thrown into the ocean, which is why they are now being used as reefs. This was not a person centered solution nor was it an environmental centered solution, but it was an intelligent business decision and did end up changing the way American’s viewed transit. Traffic congestion became more and more difficult as time progressed so the municipality of Los Angeles decided to widen  its freeways to compensate for the sudden burst of vehicles within the city

Tempered Glass


Tempered glass is made from annealed glass which is regular glass, also referred to as “non-tempered” glass. Annealed glass is placed onto a roller table, taking it through a furnace which heats it 620 degrees Celsius, which is well above its transition temperature of 564 degrees Celsius in which it changes from a hard material into a soft rubber material. The glass is soon after rapidly cooled with forced air. The inner portion remains free to flow for a short time whilst the outer portion hardens quickly. An alternative chemical toughening process involves forcing a surface layer of glass at least 0.1 mm thick into compression by ion exchange of the sodium ions in the glass surface with potassium ions (which are 30% larger), by immersion of the glass into a bath of molten potassium nitrate. Chemical toughening results in increased toughness compared with thermal toughening and can be applied to glass objects of complex shapes

Terraforming Mars


In order to terraform Mars, scientists have theorized that by blasting the polar ice caps on the north and south poles of the planet with lasers, the ice could be melted, turned into water, and used to grow vegetation. Terraforming has been successfully performed in the past, as 1600 kilometers off the coast of Africa is Ascension Island, a place in which nothing grew or lived (as far as scientists are aware of) because there was no fresh water or vegetation due to the top soil being prone to volcanic activity. Charles Darwin visited the island with his good friend Sir Joseph Hooker. Darwin and Hooker terraformed the destitute island by introducing approximately 220 different plants, transplanted by ship, on a Noah’s Ark of sorts. The experiment worked. Ascension Island is now home to hundreds of plant species and the lifeforms which go alongside vegetation

Cement and Concrete


Cement and concrete are not the same thing although they are commonly incorrectly used interchangeably. Cement is an ingredient of concrete which is a very fine powder made from limestone, sand, clay, iron ore, water, and stone. Proportions of these ingredients are crushed and heated in a kiln to form what is referred to as “clinker”. The clinker is crushed again with gypsum and a number of other ingredients, and the result is a fine powder which is then referred to as “cement”. Aggregates in concrete such as sand and stone, coarse and fine, are for volume only and are not active ingredients in the hydration process