The Rise of the Electric and Gasoline Automobile to Combat Horse Manure

19th-century-city

In the late 19th century there were 200,000 horses in New York City, United States of America, producing over 400,000 tonnes of manure. Getting rid of this waste was directly what spawned the automobile, both the electric version and the gasoline. The fate of the electric car was sealed in 1908 when Henry Ford launched the Model T. The Model T was mass produced and undercut its cheapest competitor by 33%. Within 5 years of introduction, the automobile eliminated 90% of horses in New York City

Ancient Stained Glass Manufacturing

ancient-stained-glass

The manufacturing of stained glass is an ancient technology which dates back so far that the ancient Egyptians knew how to do it 2000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Medieval Europe inherited this form of technology but did not invent it as is common belief. Deep, rich blue glass was very difficult to make and therefore needed to be imported from southern Italy. The deep blues which the Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France is so famous for can historically be traced through documentation to fragments coming from the Byzantine Empire as well as the Roman Empire. These imports were melted down and used to create new glass. Most colors and dyes came from the natural world in the forms of roots, berries, barks, leaves, minerals, and crushed insects, but the most prized colors were imported into Europe from the east, specifically India and China using Ottoman trade routes. The simple luck of geography made Venice, Italy an incredibly wealthy city as it acted as a nexus between the east and west. The blue hue referred to as “ultramarine” was the most expensive color to acquire and therefore it was almost always saved for depictions of the Virgin Mary, typically in her cloak or some other form of clothing, as Mary was depicted as the focal point of every painting she appeared within. Ultra Marine came from the mineral of lapis lazuli and when it was ground up into powder, some parts would inevitably become smaller than others which allowed these particles to reflect more light and provide a deeper, richer color to work with and appreciate. Vermillion Red was almost as precious as ultramarine, and has been used in Europe for hundreds of years in various illuminated manuscripts. Made from the mineral cinnabar, vermillion was adopted in places outside of Europe like meso-America for painting, India for bindi dots, and China to create lacquerware

The Rationale For the Iconic Green Color of the U.S. Military 

military-camouflage

The decision of the United States military to design equipment with its iconic green shade was made during the 19th century. It was during this time that European chemists developed a new type of paint which could rustproof iron. This new creation happened to be green which is why the U.S. military continues to use that particular shade. Technology has long allowed for the advent of rustproofing materials in any color imaginable but because the color originally used works well with camouflage, it is still in use

The Original Target of Nuclear Warfare in Japan During World War II 

Ryoanji-Temple-Japan

The Ryōan-ji (pronounced “rai-oh-anne-jee”) temple garden in Kyoto, Japan was the intended target of the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan during World War II. The American Secretary of State Harry Stimpson, who visited the Ryōan-ji temple garden during his travels throughout the world, lobbied against the bombing of this garden and other gardens around it located in Kyoto as he had appreciated the gardens beauty and significance to Japanese culture. Because Stimpson was steadfast in his opposition to the bombing of the Ryōan-ji Temple garden, the site was spared with Nagasaki substituted as Nagasaki was considered an equally suitable target

Methanol Energy Production 

methanol-plant

Methanol is the simplest alcohol to make and is the most probable choice fuel for future Mars missions. Ethanol only requires water and carbon. Methanol is colloquially referred to as “wood alcohol” and/or “natural gas”. Professional racing car drivers prefer methanol as a fuel source due to the fact that it’s much less likely to catch fire after a crash. Methanol burns incredibly clean in comparison to gasoline and methanol costs 33% of what gasoline costs to manufacture and distribute

Ethanol Energy Production 

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Henry Ford called ethanol which is alcohol made from a variety of materials, “the fuel of the future”. John Rockefeller seen ethanol as a threat to his oil monopoly and therefore used his influence to push prohibition of alcohol. Virtually any plant can be used to create ethanol making it a readily available resource worldwide. Most vehicles of any decade require a $150.00 modification to their onboard computer system to be able to tolerate ethanol. Yellow gas caps are indicative of flex-fuel cars which are cars which are adapted to accept and effectively utilize either gasoline or ethanol. Brazil has successfully instituted laws which have made every gas station offer both gasoline and ethanol which has boosted the Brazillian economy into the trillions and allowed Brazil to pay back all foreign debts