The Sale of Meat In New York City, United States of America During the 19th Century

19th-century-butcher

Butchers in the 19th century often turned rotting meat into sausage so that the meat it was made up of was unidentifiable and palatable. Butchers added the chemical compound Borax which is sodium borate to cover up the scent of the meat because the boracic acid would kill any bacteria present upon the meat. It was later discovered that Borax is ideal for keeping wounds clean, killing cockroaches, and cleaning floors, which provides a clear frame of reference in terms of its potential safety hazards when consumed. The meat would still smell and taste bad and would cause those who consumed it to become sick but despite this, butchers would add red clothing dye made from coal tar which sometimes had arsenic in it to freshen up the grey and brown color of the meat so that it was more visually presentable to consumers. Finally, stale bread or cookies were added to bind everything together before the meat was sold

Bacteria and the Human Body 

bacteria

The human body is an ecosystem and in it is 10,000,000,000,000 (10 trillion) cells and 100,000,000,000,000 (100 trillion) microbes. It’s a ratio of 10:1 meaning that human beings are 90% microbial and only 10% mammalian. There are approximately 7000 different species of microbe within the intestine, approximately 700 different species within the mouth, approximately 300 – 400 different species within the vagina, and approximately 700 different species within and found upon the skin. Bacteria perform a myriad of tasks which includes regulating metabolic rates and regulating the immune system, among other various tasks

The Reason Why Genetic Diseases Remain Undetected 

laboratory-genetic-code

Every human being carries 10 – 20 faulty mutated genes which if matched with another person who carries the same mutation can cause hereditary disease processes. The reason these genes stay dormant and continue to be passed along without any particular generation noticing is because they have not been synchronized with a copy of that same mutation due to two people coming together to procreate. When this does occur however, the chance of inheriting the disease jumps from 0% to 50% automatically. The human genome is akin to a book with 3,000,000,000 (3 billion) letters, therefore small changes on any level is an immensely complex process and can lead to drastic changes under the right conditions

Ultraviolet Radiation Sterilization

ultraviolet-radiation-sterilization

Ultraviolet radiation disrupts the chemical bonds which hold bacteria and viruses together. Ultraviolet radiation is able to kill the cell and ensures whatever material is exposed afterwards becomes sterile. The longer an organism is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the less likely it is to have any microbes alive upon it. Hospitals and various industries utilize this method of sterilization to ensure their equipment and environment is as free of microorganisms as possible

The Bubonic Plague

Black-Plague

The Bubonic Plague killed off approximately 66% of Europe during the 1350’s with the exception of Milan, Italy and Kraków, Poland. This was due to the people of Milan understanding that quarantining the city was a necessary requirement to help aide in the cessation of disease proliferation. Quarantining was performed despite physicians not properly and/or fully understanding the mechanics of viral and bacterial infection. The citizens of Milan also burned down the home of any person or family suspected of having recently contracted the Black Plague. Kraków was a prominent refuge for people of Jewish descent, as Jewish people were used as scapegoats as to the reason why the Black Plague occurred in Europe in the first place. Due to the fact that Jews frequently bathed as it was not in conflict with their religious beliefs, unlike most others in Europe, the Black Plague was barred from having as great of an effect as it did across the rest of Europe. Milan and Kraków were left virtually unscathed with most of their populations surviving the catastrophic epidemic