The Sale of Meat In New York City, United States of America During the 19th Century


Butchers in the 19th century often turned rotting meat into sausage so that the meat it was made up of was unidentifiable and palatable. Butchers added the chemical compound Borax which is sodium borate to cover up the scent of the meat because the boracic acid would kill any bacteria present upon the meat. It was later discovered that Borax is ideal for keeping wounds clean, killing cockroaches, and cleaning floors, which provides a clear frame of reference in terms of its potential safety hazards when consumed. The meat would still smell and taste bad and would cause those who consumed it to become sick but despite this, butchers would add red clothing dye made from coal tar which sometimes had arsenic in it to freshen up the grey and brown color of the meat so that it was more visually presentable to consumers. Finally, stale bread or cookies were added to bind everything together before the meat was sold

The Status Symbol of Fast Food In Brazil


Fast food in Brazil is considered a sign of success. Fast food in Brazil costs approximately 2x as much as it does in the developed world. Fast food corporations view China, Brazil, and India as emerging markets but the way in which these markets have responded to the introduction of fast food is very different. Whilst the general public of all industrialized countries are aware that fast food is bad for health and therefore should not be consumed often, subsequently being viewed as a product which is consumed predominantly by the poor, this viewpoint is completely flipped and skewed in Brazil as Brazilians know that fast food is bad for their health, but participating in the eating of fast food is regarded as a status symbol, something that only wealthy and affluent members of society can participate in and enjoy. It’s a smaller, lighter version of what owning an iPhone or high end brand name clothing is in the industrialized world



The people of Gaul which is modern day France, part of Belgium, western Germany, and northern Italy, discovered that various foods could be improved by aging them using a process referred to as “saisonner” which means “passing of the seasons” in German. After being conquered by the Normans in 1066, the British adopted this new aging process and referred to it as “seasoning”. With the introduction of Middle Eastern spices brought by returning Crusaders during the 13th century, seasoning took on the meaning of “anything which embellishes the taste of food”

Syrup and Molasses


Syrup and molasses are not the same thing, but are commonly confused and used interchangeably. Both syrup and molasses are comprised of sugar and have similar textures and uses. Molasses is a byproduct of the sugar making process as it is the syrupy residue left behind after sugar crystals are extracted from sugar cane or sugar beets during the boiling process. Cane syrup is made from sugar cane juice as the juice is boiled down and evaporated to create cane syrup. The types of molasses vary based upon which step of the sugar crystallization process the residue came from. Light molasses is the residue left behind after the first boiling process, while dark molasses comes from the second boiling process. Blackstrap molasses, the residue left after the third boiling is dark and bitter and normally not used for cooking. Cane syrup is referred to as “golden syrup”, “jus de canne” or “sugar cane juice”. Cane syrup is an amber colored liquid, available in light and dark varieties. To prevent crystallization, some cane syrup manufacturers add corn syrup to the product



200 years ago, sanitary conditions were very poor in Japan. Clean water was scarce and refrigeration did not exist which posed a problem as fish is a staple of the Japanese diet. The Japanese used wasabi to stave off germs and food poisoning. Wasabi kills Escherichia coli and many other bacterium instantly. Eating raw fish referred to as “maguro” which means “tuna” in English was possible without modern soap and refrigeration because of wasabi. The Japanese also realized that white eyes on a fish mean it’s old, while shiny eyes on a fish indicates that it is fresh