Weight Loss During Periods of Starvation or Fasting


1 in 210 obese men and 1 in 124 obese women will lose weight following restrictive caloric diets. That is a failure rate of 99.5% for men and 99.2% for women. These values are even lower for those suffering from morbid obesity. Studies have demonstrated that 4 days of continuous fasting does not drop basal metabolic rates, rather it increases metabolic rate by approximately 12%. This mechanism is purposely designed by evolution because a metabolism which slows down greatly due to gaps in finding food, would cause lethargy and eventually death to the organism. Animals are programmed to increase metabolic rates during periods of starvation as a way to ensure the body continues to forage and hunt for food. Whilst fasted, the human body first burns glycogen found within the liver, then moves to body fat and muscle, and then finally more essential parts of the body like tissues and organs when all other resources have been exhausted. Fasting increases weight loss by 6x in comparison to caloric restriction

The Connection Between Parrot Fish and Sand


On some beach islands in the Maldives, as much as 70% of all sand comes from the excrement of parrot fish. Parrot fish primarily consume coral which is composed of calcium carbonate and causes their excrement to become white sand. A single parrot fish can eat enough coral to expel 1 tonne of sand within a single year

The Nest of the Edible-Nest Swiflet and its High Economic Value


Birds nests made by edible-nest swiftlets using solidified saliva is highly prized all throughout Asia with a single kilogram selling for over $2000.00. Edible-nest swiftlet nests are believed by those who subscribe to the practice of eastern, more specifically Chinese medicine, to boost the immune system, improve skin complexion, and to fight signs of aging, however none of these claims have been backed up with scientific evidence. Edible-nest swiftlets prefer to create their nests in dark caves, so aside from farming them in specialized dark rooms, acquiring them in nature is incredibly dangerous as steep and sheer cliffs must be scaled to reach the nests which are precariously high above ground level. It takes edible-nest swiftlets 40 days to make a single nest and nests can only be produced during the breeding season which is when the edible-nest swiftlets salivary glands engorge

The Effects of a Western Diet On Health


Overall health and quality of life typically are reduced dramatically after the age of 65 for people who subscribe to consuming a typical western diet. The average American may live to be 79 on paper, but in practice a wide bell curve must be observed which states that the majority of people, or at the very least 50% of people in this range die between the ages of 60 and 79. Those who adopt a nutritarian diet can typically expect 15 – 20 more years than a person who consumed a typical western diet, but what’s more is that those years are spent in good health not poor or deteriorating health, observing a vastly reduced, thin bell curve which sees a peak of 98 years of age with death occurring between 80 – 120 with virtually all living past 85

Modern Concept of Santa Clause


The modern concept of Santa Clause with a red suit, a jolly belly, and the iconic “Ho Ho Ho” laugh was invented by cartoonist Thomas Nast in the 1870’s and popularized by Coca Cola in their Santa advertisements which started in 1931. Prior to this, Santa was thought of and depicted as an elvin creature who lived amongst his elves

The Sale of Meat In New York City, United States of America During the 19th Century


Butchers in the 19th century often turned rotting meat into sausage so that the meat it was made up of was unidentifiable and palatable. Butchers added the chemical compound Borax which is sodium borate to cover up the scent of the meat because the boracic acid would kill any bacteria present upon the meat. It was later discovered that Borax is ideal for keeping wounds clean, killing cockroaches, and cleaning floors, which provides a clear frame of reference in terms of its potential safety hazards when consumed. The meat would still smell and taste bad and would cause those who consumed it to become sick but despite this, butchers would add red clothing dye made from coal tar which sometimes had arsenic in it to freshen up the grey and brown color of the meat so that it was more visually presentable to consumers. Finally, stale bread or cookies were added to bind everything together before the meat was sold

The Status Symbol of Fast Food In Brazil


Fast food in Brazil is considered a sign of success. Fast food in Brazil costs approximately 2x as much as it does in the developed world. Fast food corporations view China, Brazil, and India as emerging markets but the way in which these markets have responded to the introduction of fast food is very different. Whilst the general public of all industrialized countries are aware that fast food is bad for health and therefore should not be consumed often, subsequently being viewed as a product which is consumed predominantly by the poor, this viewpoint is completely flipped and skewed in Brazil as Brazilians know that fast food is bad for their health, but participating in the eating of fast food is regarded as a status symbol, something that only wealthy and affluent members of society can participate in and enjoy. It’s a smaller, lighter version of what owning an iPhone or high end brand name clothing is in the industrialized world