The World’s Oldest Form of Writing 


Cuneiform (pronounced “kyu-neh-ah-form”) originated in modern day Iraq, in a region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, a region referred to as “Mesopotamia”. Cuneiform is the oldest writing system ever developed. In 1750 B.C., a Babylonian cuneiform clay tablet accounted the story of Noah’s Ark, but what makes this tablet unique is that the story shows up 1000 years before it does within the Christian Bible. The stories between the tablet and the biblical epic match perfectly however the tablet contains additional details such as the fact that the boat which was used was circular in shape

Dark Spots on Antiquitous Documents 


When brown color changes and dark spots appear on old documents and the pages of old books, these blemishes are referred to as “foxing”. The term “foxing” is based upon the term “ferrous oxide” borrowing the letter “f” in “ferrous” and the letters “ox” in “oxide”. Foxing occurs when paper becomes exposed to humidity and as part of the oxidation process when iron, copper, or other metallic substances within the pulp from which the paper was made are exposed to oxygen to form iron oxide which is rust

Ball Point Pen


The ball point pen was invented by Ladislao José Biro and originally sold for $55.00 as it was not a cheap, mass produced, consumable product at the time. Accounting for inflation, the ball point pen retails in today’s market for approximately $0.19 (19 cents) per unit. Biro’s first idea was to have a ball tip made from brass, steel, or tungsten carbide with quick drying newspaper ink, but unfortunately it did not work. Biro then moved to a slower drying ink cartridge and to his good fortune, the idea worked. The ball point pen works by rolling and picking up a thin film from the ink cartridge held above the ball point. Until this point, quills and lead pencils were used for writing as the quill had been around since 600 A.D., and the lead pencil had been in circulation since 1795. Biro’s first major customer was the Royal Air Force, as Biro developed and introduced the ball point pen in 1940 which was towards the beginning of World War II. The Royal Air Force was interested in the idea because it allowed their military to write at high altitudes, unlike traditional fountain pens. Interestingly enough, Biro was not the first person to come up with the idea of a rollerball system for delivering ink to the nib of a pen. John Loud is widely believed to have patented the first ballpoint pen back in 1888, but he failed to turn it into a commercial product and so his patent lapsed

Mark Twain


The name “Mark Twain” is actually a pen name. Mark Twain’s real name was “Samuel Clemens”. The name “Mark Twain” is actually a term and was originally used for nautical riverboats as it meant “12 feet”. The specific depth of 12′ is considered a safe depth in which to sail without the risk of sinking or capsizing a boat or ship

The Renaissance


The person who is accredited with creating The Renaissance is Giorgio Vasari as he published a book entitled “Le Vite de’ più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori” which means “The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects” in Italian. The book is often shortened in its title and called “The Lives of Artists”. This book ended up becoming the most influential art book of all time. Within the preface of the book, Vasari uses the term “rinascita” which means “rebirth” in Italian, to describe what was going on around him. Vasari stated that under the ancient Greeks and ancient Roman’s, art and civilization reached it’s highest levels of perfection, and that when the barbarians, or as they’re called today, the Germans, came into the picture, the arts fell to ruins. The Renaissance is measured to have occurred between 1400 – 1600, with the dates being slightly vague on each end