The Peculiarity of King Philip II of Spain 

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King Philip II of Spain was referred to as the “bureaucrat king” because he loved nothing more than to sit in a plain room with documents which he needed to read and sign. Philip II didn’t like human contact or interaction and made his court submit their requests to him via a written document even if they were in the next room. Philip II spoke very quietly and stared at those who spoke to him, often cited as making others feel uncomfortable. Philip II cared only of his empire and his religion of Catholicism and had no interest in building or maintaining relationships with others

Nazi German V2 Rocket Production During World War II 

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The V2 rocket was one of the most expensive pieces of weaponry utilized during World War II. The V2 rocket was manufactured under slave labor conditions and although it was successful in its ability to kill 5000 people during its various attacks, 10,000 – 20,000 people died during its production as miscalculations and errors often occurred during the various manufacturing and testing processes. The V2 rocket was primarily built by Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, and French prisoners of war. Overworking, underfeeding, and not providing sanitation caused many deaths to these slave laborers which hindered the ability to produce the unrealistic quota demands Adolf Hitler had requested of the German military. For each V2 rocket which was produced, 6 slave laborers died. Wernher von Braun performed many calculations for the German military in terms of the amount of concentration camp slave laborers required to meet demand quotas as well as how many people were expected to die during each production run. Prisoners were often hung publicly within the labor camps as punishment for resistance or sabotage of the project

Japanese Imperial Sexual Slavery During World War II

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Over 200,000 women and girls were forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II across Asia. The Japanese referred to these people as “comfort women”. Since January 8, 1992, elderly Korean women and their supporters have protested in front of the Japanese embassy in Korea every single Wednesday without fail

Queen Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots

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During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, being a Catholic was illegal and those suspected of practicing Catholicism were charged with treason against England. Elizabeth I was the cousin of Mary Queen of Scots, and after Mary Queen of Scots was forcibly removed from her kingdom, she was brought in by Elizabeth I despite their difference in religion. Mary Queen of Scots was a devout Catholic and Elizabeth I was a practicing Protestant. Eventually, rumors circulated that Mary Queen of Scots would try to usurp the throne from her cousin. Clandestine messages were sent inside the heels of shoes, within the personal private areas of servants, within the pages of books, and using many other inventive solutions. The most effective way of sending secret messages during this period, was inside the cork of beer barrels as none of Elizabeth I guards ever thought to look there. Lemon juice was used as invisible ink which when heated with a candle flame, revealed clear messages and enabled Mary Queen of Scots and her allies to conspire against Elizabeth I. Mary Queen of Scots was eventually entrapped and convicted with her co-conspirators being publicly hung nearly until death, then brought down and disemboweled and shown their bowels, after which their limbs were cut off and displayed in prominent parts of London, England. Mary Queen of Scots was stayed of her execution as Elizabeth I would not sign her death warrant. It is estimated that this period is when British intelligence, specifically MI5 and MI6, began to formulate. The abbreviation “MI” stands for “military intelligence” and each number stands for “section 5” and “section 6”

Renaissance Law Regarding Women’s Rights

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During the Renaissance, rape was not recognized in the contextual mindscape that it is today. Rape was seen as a dishonorable stamp upon the family and the families name of the victim. If rape occurred, it was not uncommon for the offender to marry the victim, therefore making the act acceptable within the eyes of the family, the court, and as was thought at the time, in the eyes of God. Rape of a woman who was no longer a virgin was essentially considered not to be a crime, however rape of a woman who was a virgin, was considered to be very serious until sorted out. It was not uncommon for an aggressor to pay a dowry to the victim and her family so that she could marry another man, if the offender had no interest in marrying said victim. Dowries were considered unideal but an acceptable practice during this period. A daughters virginity being intact was viewed as a significant financial gain towards the women’s family as it was customary to receive a sizeable dowry when she became married. A notable historical example of this ideology is directly correlated to the incredibly talented Renaissance painter Artemisia Gentileschi, who was raped by a painter her father Orazio who was also a famous painter, commissioned to teach his daughter the art of sketching using proper perspective and dimension

Charity Within the Royal Family

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Charity within the royal family has been documented as far back as 300 years ago, with King George visiting debtors prison and absolving those within it of their financial debts. Queen Victoria was an avid help to those living in London during the Industrial Revolution, and used both state and private funds to help those in squalor. Eventually Queen Victoria’s acts translated into legislative changes which made it illegal to provide living conditions which were unfit for human use. The United Kingdom has 180,000 charities with 10,000 of those being of a significant size. Between these charities approximately $91,000,000,000 ($91 billion) is raised per year, accounting for 4% of the total gross domestic product of the United Kingdom, which means that British charities raise approximately double what the government spends on military defense each year. The United Kingdom has been ranked the most charitable nation in Europe. The royal family sponsors approximately 3000 charities, with 1500 being Queen Elizabeth’s and Prince Phillip’s responsibility, and the remaining being taken care of by the younger members of the royal family

The Origin of Kung Fu

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The origin of Kung Fu started with Bodhidharma (pronounced “bo-dee-dar-ma”), an Indian monk who arrived in Shaolin, China during the 5th century. Bodhidharma meditated for 9 years in a cave at the top of Mount Songshan, next to the Shaolin monk monastery. After becoming enlightened, Bodhidharma descended back down to the monastery to teach his fellow monks what he had learned and encouraged physical activity through calisthenics as a way of training the body and mind. It is a 5 kilometer trek of stairs from the bottom to the top of Mount Songshan and Shaolin monks use this staircase as part of their physical and mental training, going up and down the stairs in various movements (e.g. walking, crouching, laying down etc.)