The Sale of Meat In New York City, United States of America During the 19th Century


Butchers in the 19th century often turned rotting meat into sausage so that the meat it was made up of was unidentifiable and palatable. Butchers added the chemical compound Borax which is sodium borate to cover up the scent of the meat because the boracic acid would kill any bacteria present upon the meat. It was later discovered that Borax is ideal for keeping wounds clean, killing cockroaches, and cleaning floors, which provides a clear frame of reference in terms of its potential safety hazards when consumed. The meat would still smell and taste bad and would cause those who consumed it to become sick but despite this, butchers would add red clothing dye made from coal tar which sometimes had arsenic in it to freshen up the grey and brown color of the meat so that it was more visually presentable to consumers. Finally, stale bread or cookies were added to bind everything together before the meat was sold

The Rise of the Electric and Gasoline Automobile to Combat Horse Manure


In the late 19th century there were 200,000 horses in New York City, United States of America, producing over 400,000 tonnes of manure. Getting rid of this waste was directly what spawned the automobile, both the electric version and the gasoline. The fate of the electric car was sealed in 1908 when Henry Ford launched the Model T. The Model T was mass produced and undercut its cheapest competitor by 33%. Within 5 years of introduction, the automobile eliminated 90% of horses in New York City

The Ancient Vedic Texts


The Vedas are a collection of texts which have not been modified or updated as language has progressed. The term “veda” means “knowledge” in Sanskrit. The Vedic texts were read and understood by Nobel Prize laureate physicists Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, and Albert Einstein, as well as the immensely influential physicist Robert Oppenheimer and incredibly revolutionary engineer and inventor Nicola Tesla. These texts had a profound influence upon modern thinking and modern physics. In the Rig Veda, creation is said to have begun suddenly and explosively, from an infinitesimal point of pure energy, which is essentially akin to a rudimentary explanation of the Big Bang Theory. Vedic texts are known to be at least 3000 years old but are suspected by many to be much older

The Ancient Greek Invention of the “Soulmate”


The notion of a soulmate has its origins in Ancient Greece. Over 2000 years ago, the Greek philosopher Plato postulated that all human beings should be considered perfect, and that each person is tragically split in two at birth, resulting in a species destined to spend the rest of their lives searching for another person who can complete their missing half

Moroccan Slavery


Slavery has not been abolished in Morocco and is technically still legal even during the modern day. Many people have parents, or grandparents who were born into slavery and have experienced slavery first hand. An estimated 13,000,000 (13 million) slaves were transported north across the Sahara Desert, a number similar in size to those who forced into slavery during the 18th and 19th century in the U.S.. In Morocco there are entire villages of people who descend from the lineage of slaves who were forced along the salt roads of West Africa

Ancient Stained Glass Manufacturing


The manufacturing of stained glass is an ancient technology which dates back so far that the ancient Egyptians knew how to do it 2000 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Medieval Europe inherited this form of technology but did not invent it as is common belief. Deep, rich blue glass was very difficult to make and therefore needed to be imported from southern Italy. The deep blues which the Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France is so famous for can historically be traced through documentation to fragments coming from the Byzantine Empire as well as the Roman Empire. These imports were melted down and used to create new glass. Most colors and dyes came from the natural world in the forms of roots, berries, barks, leaves, minerals, and crushed insects, but the most prized colors were imported into Europe from the east, specifically India and China using Ottoman trade routes. The simple luck of geography made Venice, Italy an incredibly wealthy city as it acted as a nexus between the east and west. The blue hue referred to as “ultramarine” was the most expensive color to acquire and therefore it was almost always saved for depictions of the Virgin Mary, typically in her cloak or some other form of clothing, as Mary was depicted as the focal point of every painting she appeared within. Ultra Marine came from the mineral of lapis lazuli and when it was ground up into powder, some parts would inevitably become smaller than others which allowed these particles to reflect more light and provide a deeper, richer color to work with and appreciate. Vermillion Red was almost as precious as ultramarine, and has been used in Europe for hundreds of years in various illuminated manuscripts. Made from the mineral cinnabar, vermillion was adopted in places outside of Europe like meso-America for painting, India for bindi dots, and China to create lacquerware

Effects of the Atomic Bomb Dropped Upon Nagasaki, Japan During World War II


The atomic bomb dropped upon Nagasaki, Japan on August 6, 1945 was detonated a few thousand feet above the ground as the bomb would have primarily been absorbed by the Earth if it were permitted to touch down. Because the detonation occurred within the air, the force of the first and second blast waves flattened everything within its path. The blast was so bright that atomic shadows were left from anything casting a shadow during the detonation as the light and heat which were the primary components given off during detonation, did not shine as brightly upon the shadows as they did upon everything else. For a few short seconds, the highly enriched uranium created temperatures of tens of millions of degrees Celsius, as if reaching into the core of the sun and dropping that power into the Earth’s atmosphere for a brief moment. The blast emitted was hot enough to melt and fuse anything in touched including granite, steel, iron, glass, clay, and tile