The Test Subject and Scientific Experiment Which Proved the Fear Response in Human Beings Does Not Solely Reside Within the Amygdala

SM Amygdala MRIJustin Feinstein is one of the few scientists who have been able to study a woman who has zero fear response. To protect the woman’s identity, this subject is known only as “S.M.”, and Feinstein has had the opportunity to work with her under laboratory conditions and in real world scenarios (e.g. coffee meeting, sporting event, professional conference etc.) for the past 15 years as of 2018. S.M.’s lack of fear has had unexpected consequences within her life, as she displays no sense of typical fear induced scenarios (e.g. personal space, feeling completely comfortable being nose to nose with a complete stranger as the concept of personal space and discomfort has no meaning), heightened by the fact that S.M. does not produce typical signals of distrust when interacting with a novel person. S.M. lacks fear because she is without her amygdala, a physical trait observed in very few human beings, making S.M. one of the only people in the world to produce this physiology. S.M. has no amygdala because she has been diagnosed with Urbach-Wiethe Disease (pronounced “urr-bock vee-they”). The underlying etymology of Urbach-Wiethe Disease is still unknown but in patients with the condition, specific portions of the brain, in both hemispheres, can become subject to selective calcification which erodes the ability to function as designed. The amygdala acts as a sentry for potential fearful stimuli, and produces a response accordingly. The removal of or inability of the amygdala to work correctly results in a complete and total lack and/or loss of fear. This condition has caused S.M. considerable difficulty during her life as she has experienced dangerous interactions with those participating within the illicit drug trade. Upon one occasion, a stranger ran up to S.M., placed a firearm against her temple, and yelled “bang!”. Neighbors witnessed this event and notified law enforcement which puzzled S.M. as she did not view the event as dangerous or alarming and therefore did not expect to be contacted by the police. When the human body detects the intake of too much carbon dioxide, it can become pushed into a state of alarm. Feinstein wanted to better understand what would occur if he interfered with S.M.’s respiratory system, using 35% carbon dioxide during the first trial run. Feinstein found that S.M. was immediately fearful after a single intake breath, despite his original hypothesis of no fear response being observed. S.M. displayed an immediate and dramatic fear response with S.M. herself describing it as the “most intense fear ever felt” during her entire life. This single breath was revolutionary for neurology as it definitively proved that the amygdala is not the only region of the brain which controls and is related to fear

The Rationale Why Pharmaceutical Organizations are Not Incentivized to Develop Antibiotics and Why This is Dangerous for the Worlds Next Pandemic

antibiotic-resistanceWithin 5 short years of release, approximatly 20% of antibiotics become subject to resistance from bacterial pathogens which means that antibiotic proliferation is chronologically limited within its life expectancy. Coupled with this, if an antibiotic is highly effective, the scientific and medical community often rally against its usage so that such a tool can be saved in reserve for a global bacterial pandemic. In either scenario, return upon investment is less than what it would be with a different class of medication (e.g. selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, statin, hypnotic etc.) which is why pharmaceutical organizations are less interested in research and development dedicated to antibiotic medicine in favor of other, more profitable medication categories. This lack of investment however is myopic and will inevitably backfire upon the pharmaceutical industry as a whole if new antibiotics are not developed because medications used to treat cancer will become less in demand due to the fact that cancer patients are highly likely to acquire an infection during treatment when their immune system is comprised, with this infection often killing the patient if antibiotic solutions are not available. This would expectedly lead to a sharp decline in cancer medication treatment and subsequently pharmaceutical sales of related medications as patients would be likely to adopt living the rest of their life as fully as possible and forgoing treatment as they would be damned if they accept the cancer treatment and develop an infection which kills them but also damned if they don’t accept the treatment and let the cancer run its course which is almost always fatal

To provide comparison of the research, development, and manufacturing contrast between oncology medications and antibiotics, as of 2020, there are currently 800 medications in development for cancer and hypertension whilst only 28 antibiotic medications undergoing that same research phase and development process, with 2 of these antibiotics expected to become fully developed and able to reach the market and patients. The last new antibiotic class, lipopeptides, were introduced in 1984 with a gap referred to as an “antibiotic void” occurring during the 1990’s, 2000’s, 2010’s, and now moving into the 2020’s. The urgency of this threat is projected to become dire within the coming decades, with scientists predicting that by 2050, medicine could potentially come full circle to the pre-antibiotic era, with microbes which are completely and totally resistant to every antibiotic known to medicine

The Future of Body Modification

nanotechnology-dermal-implant

Near field communication, often abbreviated as “NFC” is the ability for wireless devices to communicate with eachother and has now made its way into the bodies of human beings with some opting to implant small subdermal microchips using a large gauge hypodermic syringe (e.g. 14 – 18 gauge) which is preloaded so that these individuals gain the ability to start their vehicle(s), open their home door locks, send contact information to another persons smartphone etc., wirelessly and without any intervention or effort upon the end user. This adaptation is referred to as “transhuman” as it goes beyond what the biological human body can do by introducing technology which cannot be evolved into existence. Devices have been developed for a number of different purposes (e.g. vibrating when pointed towards magnetic north turning the body into a compass or implanting a small chip containing tritium gas which glows beneath the skin but is radioactive and therefore not battery powered lasting indefinitely as tritium gas has a 12 year half-life etc.). In 2018, at the University of Colorado, Dr. Carson Bruns and his team developed a technology which allows for smart tattooing in that newly and highly specialized tattoo inks will be able to deliver new functions to the artistic medium of tattooing. The first design invented was a tattoo ink which is sensitive to ultraviolet light which allows it to lay invisible under typical lighting conditions and only appear as a blue hue once outside in the presense of sunlight or an artificial ultraviolet light source. This technology would be practical as well as esthetic as it would allow a person to know when they’ve had too much sun exposure while outside. Bruns’ team has also developed tattoo ink which changes color as the temperature of the body changes which again would be functional as well as artistic, acting as a thermometer to indicate when a person has had too much or too little exposure to cold or heat. Nanotechnology is used to engineer and design tattoo particles which have specialized properties and characteristics (e.g. thermal battery and/or storage mechanism). Real world applications could be spurred by this advent like the ability to keep the entire body at a comfortable temperature at all times, regardless of the environment, if the entire body was tattooed, either visibly with color or invisibly with translucent ink. Specially engineered tattooing can also have medical applications such as that of the distribution of a pharmacological medication or hormone which helps regulate biochemistry (e.g. insulin or neural catecholamines to control mood etc.). World militaries may find use with specially engineered tattoos as well, allowing skin to become more resilient to abrasions or epidermal damage. Specialized tattoo pigments are also tactile sensitive in that when touched, they have the ability to turn on or off as well as perform other functions (e.g. manipulate an options menu upon a screen or act as a controller for a game or software etc.). In 2018, billionaire futuristic Elon Musk unveiled Neuralink, a technology which he states provides the ability of “self-directed evolution”. Neuralink will be installed within the human body by using a specialized, robotic hypodermic syringe to inject an ultra thin mesh, referred to as “neuro lace”, into the neurocortex of the brain, to form a body of electrodes which are able to monitor and influence brain function. These microelectrodes will be able read and write onto neurons; a bi-directional information exchange. This will allow for the downloading and uploading of information to and from the internet, wirelessly. This technology will allow for thoughts to be sent between users in the same format that data is shared online during the modern day using peer to peer networking. This technology will also allow for the control of devices, remotely; in principle, telekinesis. Nanotechnology now provides scientists with the technology required to manufacture electronics small enough to become tattooed, which means that in the future, Neuralink will only require a small, cranial tattoo instead of a cranial implant

The Causation and Cure for Colorblindness

colorblind-examination

Being colorblind is more difficult than most people believe as those affected often cannot match clothing colors, tell when fruit is ripe, tell when meat is cooked, or tell when traffic lights are various colors in certain lighting conditions (e.g. flashing red being mistaken for flashing yellow). Color vision is trichromatic with 3 types of cone cells within the eyes which consist of blue, green, and red, which are sensitive to short, medium, and long wavelengths of light, with each cone permitting an observer to view approximately 100 different shades. When all shades are combined, the human eye can observe approximately 1,000,000 (1 million) different colors. Colorblindness can stem from faulty cone cells or an interruption between the pathway of the cones and the brain. Colorblindness has caused vehicular deaths due to accidents around the world which have occurred most often because a driver perceived a light as yellow when it was red in reality. Neuroscientist Professor Jay Neitz (pronounced “nites”), a color researcher at the University of Washington in the U.S. and his spouse, geneticist Maureen Neitz, have teamed up to try and cure colorblindness. Gene therapy is currently being researched around the world and scientists believe that colorblindness will be cured using gene therapy in the near future. Male squirrel monkeys are naturally red-green colorblind and gene studies have demonstrated that these monkeys can be afforded color vision after having a gene delivered into the cone cells within the eye. The gene produced transforms a subset of the green cones within the male squirrel monkeys eyes to force them to become red cones, red cones which have hijacked the squirrel monkeys neural circuitry which was previously utilized solely for blue-yellow color vision, essentially bifurcating into red-green cones and blue-yellow cones so that the monkeys examined developed full color vision like human beings as of 2019. The Neitz’s confirmed this by providing male squirrel monkeys colorblind examinations which when answered correctly, delivered a small treat of food after having undergone gene therapy. Trials in human beings have yet to start as the Neitz’s believe that this step is still a few years away, but expected to initiate during the 2020’s

A Revolutionary Breakthrough in Oncology Treatment

T-cell-cancer

Cancer kills 9,000,000 (9 million) people each year and despite having searched for centuries, a cure has yet to be discovered by scientists. At the center of the immune system is the T cell, a type of leukocyte which respond against bacterial and viral infections alike in an effort to keep their host healthy and alive. T cells determine between threatening and non-threatening foreign and non-foreign bodies within a host by leveraging a molecule upon the surface of all cells referred to as the “T cell receptor”. Jim Allison was the first person to successfully isolate and purify the molecule which recognizes this lock and key model for infectious disease, auto-immune disease, and other innocuous substances within the body be they foreign or internally created. In 1987, French scientist Pierre Golstein and his team discovered a new protein upon the surface of T cells which he named “CTLA-4”. To study CTLA-4 in laboratory rats, Allison had to build and design a rat antibody, a Y shaped protein which would trigger a reaction by CTLA-4. Cancers are mutations and should in theory be visible to the immune system, which is why the scientific community has struggled with the paradox of why tumors go undetected by the immune system for decades. There is no discernible reason as to why the immune system can recognize and resist influenza or any other foreign or domestic body but not cancer. Allison theorized that tumors have evolved an ability to fool the immune system, engaging CTLA-4 which turns on the T cells response to halt its search and destroy measures. Allison hypothesized that if he inserted a Y shaped antibody to block the gap in between the tumor and T cells, the tumor would no longer have its ability to hide, a trait which has been evolved by tumor cells over hundreds of millions of years. This would allow the T cell to infiltrate, attack from within the tumor, shrink, and ultimately kill the growth. Allison spent the next decade trying to turn this revolutionary breakthrough discovery into a medication which could be provided to cancer patients. Allison found Alan Korman, a scientist creating medications for auto-immune disease which provided him with the expert he required to turn this idea into a reality. Korman was tasked with taking the CTLA-4 antibody which Allison and partner Max Krummell developed for laboratory rats, and turn it into a medication which could safely work within human beings with this medication subsequently being named “Ipilimumab” (pronounced “ipi-lim-ooh-mab”). Korman ended up collaborating with a friend from graduate school, Nils Lonberg to accomplish this task. Ipilimumab consists of an intramuscular injection into the leg and a 90 minute intravenous medication drip in comparison to chemotherapy and radiation therapy which take months of treatment to complete and have devastating effects upon overall health as both bad and good tissue are destroyed in an effort to eradicate all tumor cells. Allison’s work with laboratory rats demonstrated that with the help of this newly developed antibody, T cells gained the ability enter into tumors and expand their size in an effort to destroy them from the inside out. This means that the fact that tumors grow initially upon administration is a positive marker and indicative of the medication working as it demonstrates successful infiltration of the tumor cells themselves. Patients often report feeling better after a few treatment sessions, sometimes even a single session, despite computer tomography scans demonstrating that their tumors are growing larger, which under normal circumstances would make a patient feel worse. Some patients even noted increased improvement after having stopped the Ipilimumab treatment, with no further therapy required. On March 25, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released approval for Ipilimumab. Ipilimumab and its successors have treated nearly 1,000,000 (1 million) patients worldwide with many of these patients achieving permanent remission which is essentially the definition of having been cured of cancer. Although these medications do not work in every single case, they have definitively demonstrated to be a miracle medication for hundreds of thousands of people thus far. After completing this revolutionary discovery, Allison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2018 for his series of discoveries related to T cells and their ability to halt cancer in its progression in perpetuity

Sweden’s Major Contributions to Vehicular Safety Standards Worldwide

Volvo-XC90-crash-test

In 1959, Nils Bohlin (pronounced “neels bow-leen”) created the 3 point seatbelt while working for Volvo, an invention which Volvo intentionally designed to be patent free so that the advent could be utilized and implemented globally in a concerted effort to save lives everywhere. This was one of the first examples of open source technology in business and manufacturing. It’s been estimated that the seatbelt has saved more than 1,000,000 (1 million) lives over the past 40 years as of 2020. Swedish company Autoliv (pronounced “ow-tow-leeve”) furthered this pursuit towards safety by creating the seatbelt pre-tensioner which instantaneously reels in seatbelt slack during a vehicular accident and has also helped to design newer, better airbag systems and advanced artificial intelligence automobile visual systems

The Spanish Flu Pandemic of 1918 in London, England

Spanish-Flu

At the end of World War I, soldiers coming back to London, England from the Western Front brought with them a particularly infectious version of influenza referred to as the “Spanish Flu”. Exact metrics are unknown because of poor data collection during the early 20th century but an estimated 50,000,000 (50 million) deaths occurred, 3x as many people than that which died during the entire span of World War I. Spanish Flu had its most devastating blitzkrieg upon London in the autumn of 1918, as thousands civilians and soldiers, weakened from 4.5 years of war, became ill within a few short days of Armistice Day. Spanish Flu works quickly to destroy the lungs of healthy victims, with those who contracted the pathogen feeling fine in the morning and often found dead, later that same evening. In 1918, 320 people died of Spanish Flu in London, but during 1919, Spanish Flu had a resurgence and exploded in severity with 16,000 – 23,000 people killed, a surge which caused a shortage of gravediggers and coffins, classifying Spanish Flu as the worst epidemic in living memory. The Spanish Flu outbreak came to an end in May of 1919 once enough of the British population had experienced the infection and either been killed or having survived, becoming immune to the point that the disease could no longer be passed through hosts efficiently enough to continue its spread

The Etymology of “Matter Plasma” and “Blood Plasma”

plasma-blood-and-star

The term “plasma” is derived from the ancient Greek term “plassein” which means to “shape or mold something”. Plasma related to physics, specifically matter which has had its electrons separated from the rest of its atoms, forcing it to become an ion, more specifically a mixture of free floating electrons and ions, was first identified by British chemist and physicist Sir William Crookes in 1879 using cathode ray tubes. Crookes referred to this discovery initially as “radiant matter” but it became known as “plasma” in 1928 because of American chemist Irving Langmuir. Langmuir was exploring ionized gases, gases which were subjected to strong electrical fields to remove electrons from their orbital shells. Langmuir used the analogy of blood to explain this phenomena, with the ions representative of corpuscles and the remaining gas thought of as clear liquid. Blood is similar to plasma in that it is primarily comprised of 2 components which include its clear liquid and the corpuscles/cells entrapped within this fluid. This clear liquid was named “plasma” by Czech physiologist Johannes Purkinje In 1927. The definition of matter plasma and blood plasma however have absolutely nothing to do with eachother physically, aside from the fact that two different scientists had the idea to use the same term at approximately the same time. It is believed that these two scientists based their name upon the ancient Greek definition of the term “plasma”

The Chinese Governments Intentional Deception of the World Public Regarding COVID-19

COVID-19

ATTENTION: ALL INFORMATION DISPLAYED HAS BEEN COLLECTED EXCLUSIVELY FROM CANADA’S MOST TRUSTED NEWS NETWORK, CBC NEWS, AS THIS BLOG IS BASED OUT OF VANCOUVER, CANADA

Wuhan, China is the second most populated city in China in respect to the number of universities available to students. Wuhan is economically and geographically within the heart of China, a city subject to a constant flux of people coming in and out, making it one of the worst possible areas in China for a viral outbreak to occur. 4 weeks after the first recorded infection, the Chinese government notified the World Health Organization of the outbreak, but it was far too late by this point as Wuhan was now experiencing an enormous influx of people migrating in and out of the city for the Chinese Lunar New Year festivities. The absolute worst period for a viral infection to occur in China is during the Chinese Lunar New Year celebration as hundreds of millions of people migrate back to their families causing enormous increases in public transport use (e.g. busses, aircraft, taxis etc.). This period of a few short weeks is the largest annual mass migration in the world, as people travel in and out of as well as across China, to be with loved ones

It is believed that Coronavirus Disease 2019, commonly abbreviated as “COVID-19”, developed in Wuhan’s seafood and wildlife market, most likely from bats as this is what the genetic data collected appears to confirm. Often an intermediary animal host plays a role in opportunistic pathogens like COVID-19 and it is believed that pangolins, which are small mammalian creatures, may be this intermediary species. It is not believed that the consumption of bats and/or pangolin is what caused COVID-19 to affect human beings, but rather physical contact during handling of these animals while preparing their meat which was butchered for human consumption

As the number of cases increased in Wuhan, physicians began sharing data in a private Wechat chat group. Well before the world became familiar with COVID-19, a small number of medical professionals within Wuhan attempted to notify the public. Dr. Li Wenliang (pronounced “lee wen-lee-yong”) posted within this chat group with former university classmates that patients had begun coming into his clinic with what appeared to be the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly abbreviated as “SARS”, a viral pathogen which is a coronavirus in and of itself, one which appeared between 2002 – 2004, in China. Dr. Li wrote within this group chat, “7 SARS cases were confirmed in the Huaban seafood market. The main mode of transmission of the virus is droplet transmission at close range or contact with respiratory secretions of patients. This can cause a specialized pneumonia that is evidently contagious and capable of affecting multiple organ systems. The reason Chinese physicians were worried about this new outbreak was because SARS is incredibly infectious, with a relatively high mortality rate of 10%, and a large number of healthcare practitioners died of SARS during the 2002 – 2004 outbreak because of the complexity involved while attempting to impede transmission. On the same day as Dr. Li’s warning, the Wuhan Health Commission sent an urgent internal notice to hospitals with regard to the treatment of pneumonia with an unknown etymology. This memorandum stated, “some medical institutions in our city have seen patients steadily with pneumonia of unknown cause. If you find patients with unexplained pneumonia, actively adjust the resources and treat them on the spot”. This notice warned healthcare professionals to keep the outbreak quiet, stating, “without authorization, no units or individuals shall release treatment related information to the outside”. Dr. Li and his colleagues continued to share information, warning each other to protect loved ones and avoid the Huanan seafood markets but ran into many blockades by the Chinese government for doing so, with their Wechat conversations being monitored and eventually forcibly shut down. It is now understood that Wuhan health authorities purposefully withheld and covered up pertinent information as these authorities and their employees were explicitly told not to speak about COVID-19 under threat of undefined punishment. Dr. Li and 7 of his colleagues were detained shortly after and brought in for interrogation by law enforcement. Law enforcement internal documents state “after investigation and verification by the public security organs, 8 offenders have been summoned and handled according to law. The police will investigate and punish with zero tolerance those illegal acts that fabricate and spread rumors and disrupt social order”. Dr. Li was also reprimanded by the hospital he worked for in addition to the interrogation and intimidation instituted by law enforcement

The central Chinese government frequently received reports from health authorities and hospitals but actively chose to conceal this information, attempting to control the epidemic internally. This contradiction of western medical practice standards prevented Chinese health authorities from properly mobilizing in an effort to control the spread of this new pathogen. Had the Chinese government adopted an approach used by western health authorities and governments, the spread of COVID-19 would have been severely reduced as early detection and intervention would have been implemented ubiquitously across all Chinese outbreak zones. Although internal controls were put into place, the information purposefully kept from the public greatly exacerbated the prevalence of the COVID-19 pathogen. The COVID-19 virus could have been traced during the first 2 – 3 weeks of it first being observed, but this opportunity was squandered and lost due to the mismanagement and political ineptitude of the Chinese state

Critics like Dr. Wu Qiang, (pronounced “woo chung”) who had previously lost his ability to teach university level subjects for defying a ban instituted by President Xi Jinping which stated that university students were forbidden from learning about western democracy, continued to speak out regarding the Chinese government’s incompetency and lack of understanding in handling such a precarious public health danger

On January 9, 2020, the first death of COVID-19 was recorded, experienced by a 61 year old male who visited the seafood market where COVID-19 was first observed. This death was kept under wraps for 2 full days before being made public. It is believed that the local authorities kept this information from the public due to political concerns, as annual political summits were occurring in Wuhan and Hubei province in which Wuhan is situated. On January 22, 2020, the Chinese government finally acknowledged the complexity and severity of the COVID-19 epidemic at a press conference in Beijing, China. Wuhan went into lockdown the following day on January 23, 2020 with all public transport including busses, trains, ferries, and airports shut down, and 11,895,000 (11.8 million) people under forced quarantine

By late January, Wuhan hospitals struggled to cope with the enormous increase in COVID-19 cases confirmed, with staff subjected to intolerable conditions with many experiencing emotional outbursts and talk of suicide due to deceased patients being left upon the floor to be stepped over by healthcare workers and patients alike. With patient case numbers soaring, the Chinese government began constructing 2 new hospitals at blistering paces set, involving 24 hour work schedules in an effort to open both facilities within a few short weeks

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation of Australia, commonly abbreviated as “CSIRO”, the Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research, began cultivating COVID-19 within the countries highest security facility after the first COVID-19 case was confirmed on January 25, 2020 in the state of Victoria, Australia. The Australians became the first country to isolate the COVID-19 pathogen outside of China, and purposefully grew COVID-19 in the laboratory so that the disease could be better understood in respect to its characteristics and behaviors within biological models. The virus was then introduced to test animals, specifically ferrets because ferret respiratory systems are very similar to that of human beings. The goal for these experiments is to better understand how COVID-19 behaves and how it progresses as this permits for the development of immunizations

900,000,000 (900 million) Chinese have access to smartphone technology, 69% of China’s 1,300,000,000 (1.3 billion) person population. Extreme dissatisfaction with the Chinese government and its handling of COVID-19 was observed online, with unprecedented volumes of complaints and anger reported, more so than at any other time within the past decade of China’s recent modern history. Chinese nationals took particular issue with Wuhan’s local government and its ineffective response towards epidemiological and disaster relief strategies, the paralysis of local healthcare institutions, and the immense risk now faced by Wuhan’s 11,895,000 (11.8 million) person population. Wuhan effectively became cut off from the rest of mainland China due to the COVID-19 epidemic which was accelerating upon an exponential trajectory. There have been reports accompanied by video footage by Chinese citizens of authorities spraying doorways and other high traffic areas with disinfectant in anticipation of overflowing sewage becoming a potential vector of COVID-19 transmission and some reports have demonstrated with video footage, evidence of Chinese authorities welding the doors of entire apartment buildings shut so that no one can get in or out, regardless of the severity of an emergency (e.g. cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, pancreatitis etc.)

Professor Neil Ferguson, an epidemiologist for the Imperial College of London has stated on record that the U.K. estimates that China only detects 10% or less of all infections detected and that up to 50,000 new infections occur each day in China, numbers which are in stark opposition to the official case numbers released daily by the Chinese state. Tragically, Dr. Li, the physician who first attempted to warn the public of COVID-19 died on February 7, 2020 at age 33 causing an outpouring of anger and grief towards the Chinese government. Chinese censors worked around the clock to find and remove commentary online related to this incident

Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the Director General of the World Health Organization has stated upon record that COVID-19 is “public enemy number one” and that COVID-19 could pose a larger global threat than terrorism as a “virus can have more consequences than any terrorist action”

The Development of Modern Institutionalized Psychological Torture as a Means of Interrogation

interrogation

In the 1950’s, Scottish psychiatrist Ewen Cameron started experimenting upon his own patients which ushered in the modern age of the psychological techniques leveraged by governments to extract information from high value targets and low level targets alike. In 1951, the U.S., the U.K., and Canada began developing the Survival Evasion Resistance Escape program, abbreviated as “SERE” (pronounced “sear”) designed for when domestic soldiers became captured by enemy forces (e.g. aircraft shot down over enemy lines) as well as techniques which could be used against captured Soviets. This research became dominant within Canadian universities for almost a decade, with researchers beginning similar psychiatric experiments within psychiatric hospitals in the U.K. In the U.S. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency dominated most research and had over 160 secret projects within 80 institutions, comprising a total of $25,000,000 ($25 million) allocated for human experimentation. This project was code named “MK Ultra”. In 1963, many of Cameron’s psychological experiments were codified for the first time and compiled within the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation hand guide, a book which is now declassified and freely available online. The term “kubark” is a cryptonym, the name for the Central Intelligence Agency itself. This content became the foundation for the method of psychological interrogation and psychological torture which the Central Intelligence Agency disseminated across the U.S. intelligence community and worldwide among allies for 30 years after its initial release. Since the 1950’s, confirmed cases backed by evidence and testimony of these techniques of torture being used have been recognized or admitted to by governments in 28 nation states including Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Borneo, Brazil, British Guyana, British Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Cuba, the UK, Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lithuania, Morocco, Northern Ireland, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, Vienna, and Yemen

Whilst I rarely if ever will submit an opinion upon this blog, I feel that it is important to state that the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation hand guide is now declassified and been made public. To educate yourself so that these techniques cannot be used against you, click here to read the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation hand guide