Ancient Roman Emperor Julius Caesar’s Contribution to Time Keeping

Julius-CaesarThe month of July is a derivation of the name, “Julius Caesar”. The ancient Romans opted to rename “Quintilis”, the original name for July which means “fifth month” in Latin, to “July” after Caesars death because this was the same month that he was born. The Julian calendar, a western calendar used until 1582 when the Gregorian calendar supplanted it, is also attributed to Caesar as the Roman year had only 355 days and required an extra month be added, every 3 years. The ancient Romans repeatedly made the same calculation errors and continually found seasons out of synchronization with the actual calendar date observed. With the help of a few Roman scientists, Caesar removed the pre-Etruscan 10 month solar calendar in favor of the 365 day year calendar named after himself. The Roman calendar started on March 25, but was moved to January 1 with the advent of the Gregorian calendar

The Financial Costs of High Society Dinner Parties During the Victorian Era


During the 19th century, a typical high society dinner menu for 20 people would have cost $100.00 in total, for the Earl of an estate, equivalent to the annual salary of a maid for 2 full years of service. When accounting for inflation, the cost of hosting and entertaining a monarch during this period was even more costly, costing hosts approximately $500,000. Earl’s needed to constantly be aware of and ready for a royal visit as their title is considered one step below the pole position of Duke, which of course is one step below the title of King or Queen

The Mathematical Inventions of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi


The mathematical concept of algorithms were developed by and subsequently named after Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (pronounced “moo-ham-mad ih-bin moo-sah al kwar-iz-me”), an Islamic scholar who lived during the 8th century. The concept of algorithms arrived in Europe in the 12th century and al-Khwarizmi’s name was translated to Latin which is where the term “algorithm” is derived. al-Khwarizmi also introduced the western world to the decimal system and introduced reduction and balancing methods (e.g. like and unlike terms) causing al-Khwarizmi to become referred to as the ”father and founder of algebra”. The term “algebra” is derived from the Arabic term “al-jabr” which means “reunion of broken parts”. al-Khwarizmi invented and used algebra to solve quadratic equations and it has been stated throughout history that the ideas that al-Khwarizmi developed, helped usher in the European Renaissance during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries

The Statistics and Layouts Casinos Use To Get Gambling Customers To Spend More


During 2014, 40,000,000 (40 million) people visited Las Vegas, United States of America and lost a combined total of $10,000,000,000 ($10 billion). The average odds of winning when using a slot machine are approximately 6.6% meaning that for every $100.00 put in, the casino takes $6.60, baiting players with a win but bleeding them dry in the long term, banking nearly $0.07 (7 cents) for every $1.00 dropped into them. Casinos with the worst odds are clustered within the Las Vegas Strip, and casino games with the worst odds are clustered within the middle of each casino itself. This snowman pattern of 3 grids, each one sitting on top of a larger one beneath, surrounded by a larger perimeter of less high function activities going on also occurs in other industries including the design of digital circuits, agricultural design for industrial farms, indigenous villages layout and design in Africa, and occurs naturally within the biology of the human body. These systems are designed for maximum efficiency

The Freemasonic Society


As of 2012, there are an estimated 6,000,000 (6 million) Freemasons worldwide. It is believed by some experts that the Freemason fraternity was established during the building of Solomon’s Temple, which occurred in 1000 B.C.. The original universal symbol of the Freemason society has a geometric compass at the top, letter “G” in the middle, and a squared ruler at the bottom. The compass is considered the main tool of the Freemason and stands for the perfect circle it draws in which a Freemason can stand. It is believed by the Freemasons that when having gone outside of this circle, a Freemason will find trouble and lose control. The only way to enlarge the circle is to seek knowledge. The square is iconography designed to represent wisdom and virtue. The letter “G” represents the “grand architect of the universe” but also can be interpreted as God or geometry, as it is believed by some experts that God is a grand architect and that geometry, specifically sacred geometry is the language of the universe. The goal of the Freemason organization is to promote free thinking, as it is believed that doing so is the only way to inoculate oneself from any tyrannical person or organization set out to enslave civilization

British Penny


Neither the United States of America nor Canada have ever manufactured a penny. The term “penny” is a British invention derived from the term “pence” and refers to a “coin used before 1971 which is worth one twelfth of a shilling”. When the United States seceded from Britain, they created the term “cent”, which refers to a “unit of currency which is 1% of $1.00

Coin Ridges


In the early age of coin currency, after coins were struck, opportunistic people would excise small pieces from the edge of the coin. After doing so over and over, these people would eventually amalgamate large quantities of silver. It was such a large problem that the British government became involved in an attempt to put an end to it. Sir Isaac Newton is credited with inventing the the ridged coin as a solution, which is why to this day coins have ridges. The British government made it law that if any of the ridges were missing from any coin, the coin was no longer constituted as legal tendered currency. This solution stopped the practice of coin excision all together