The Original Color of Ballet Shoes

ballet-slippers

Ballet shoes and tights were originally created only in pink in an attempt to match the skin color of ballerinas who wore the apparel. Because ballerinas now run the gamut of a wide array of skin tone, hue, and color, bronze and brown ballerina slippers have become available. Prior to this, ballerinas would commonly use makeup and other aids to color their shoes

Weight Loss During Periods of Starvation or Fasting

bariatric-surgery-intention

1 in 210 obese men and 1 in 124 obese women will lose weight following restrictive caloric diets. That is a failure rate of 99.5% for men and 99.2% for women. These values are even lower for those suffering from morbid obesity. Studies have demonstrated that 4 days of continuous fasting does not drop basal metabolic rates, rather it increases metabolic rate by approximately 12%. This mechanism is purposely designed by evolution because a metabolism which slows down greatly due to gaps in finding food, would cause lethargy and eventually death to the organism. Animals are programmed to increase metabolic rates during periods of starvation as a way to ensure the body continues to forage and hunt for food. Whilst fasted, the human body first burns glycogen found within the liver, then moves to body fat and muscle, and then finally more essential parts of the body like tissues and organs when all other resources have been exhausted. Fasting increases weight loss by 6x in comparison to caloric restriction

Highest Elevation at Which People Live

la-rinconada-peru

In La Rinconada, Peru, the entire village of La Rinconada lives as high as those who make base camp on Mt. Everest before attempting to scale its peak. When Spanish settlers first landed in La Rinconada, most lost their infant children shortly after birth because oxygen levels are half of what they are in comparison to most other places on Earth. The reason people stayed and continue to stay in La Rinconada is because of the gold which can be extracted from the nearby mountain ranges. La Rinconada is the absolute highest elevation at which humans can live, as anything considerably higher would cause organ failure which is often quick and difficult to detect by oneself resulting in death in many cases

The Commonality Between Herbivores and Size

elephant-herbivore

The largest land animals on Earth today are all herbivores, but this was also true during the age of the dinosaurs. In descending order, the 5 largest living herbivores are the African elephant, the African bush elephant, the Asian elephant, the white rhinoceros, and the hippopotamus. The only living animals which are larger in size than these creatures are whales. Whales are not herbivores, but being a herbivore within the ocean is actually quite uncommon. The only reason whales are able to become larger than the largest land-dwelling mammals is because of the way that the ocean displaces gravity, therefore providing resistance to the pull which would under normal circumstances cause whales to collapse under their own weight. The primary reason the largest land animals are herbivores is because of food resources. There are a staggering amount of plant resources made abundant for herbivores in comparison to the relatively small amount of protein rich resources available to carnivores. Plant resources are also quickly renewable unlike protein resources. Herbivores are apt to survive predation as they increase in size whilst carnivores actually become hindered as they increase in size due to the fact that they become slower and less agile making their ability to catch prey severely reduced

The Effects of Hydrocephalus

hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus affects over 500,000 children worldwide. Hydrocephalus can be caused by infection, genetic anomalies, or head injuries. The reason hydrocephalus causes the heads of infants to grow so incredibly large is because all babies are born with soft, mailable skulls which are capable of expanding over 3x its typical size within the first 12 – 18 months after birth. Hydrocephalus is caused because the valve located between the left and right brain hemispheres which drains cerebrospinal fluid down the spine and into the abdomen, becomes blocked. When medical examinations are available, hydrocephalus can be diagnosed in utero allowing for immediate intervention. When the severity of hydrocephalus is diagnosed via computed tomography scan, the brain does not show up, as the water present takes up so much volume that the cavity where the brain would normally be, shows up as black, as water obstructs the ability of the scanner to take a complete image. The most common intervention of hydrocephalus is the installation of a shunt, but shunts have an 80% failure rate causing future uncertainty for those who have experienced hydrocephalus. Uganda has an unusually high occurrence rate of hydrocephalus primarily due to high rates of infant infection and lack of medical facilities and care

The Effects of a Western Diet On Health

western-diet

Overall health and quality of life typically are reduced dramatically after the age of 65 for people who subscribe to consuming a typical western diet. The average American may live to be 79 on paper, but in practice a wide bell curve must be observed which states that the majority of people, or at the very least 50% of people in this range die between the ages of 60 and 79. Those who adopt a nutritarian diet can typically expect 15 – 20 more years than a person who consumed a typical western diet, but what’s more is that those years are spent in good health not poor or deteriorating health, observing a vastly reduced, thin bell curve which sees a peak of 98 years of age with death occurring between 80 – 120 with virtually all living past 85