The Commonality Between Herbivores and Size

elephant-herbivore

The largest land animals on Earth today are all herbivores, but this was also true during the age of the dinosaurs. In descending order, the 5 largest living herbivores are the African elephant, the African bush elephant, the Asian elephant, the white rhinoceros, and the hippopotamus. The only living animals which are larger in size than these creatures are whales. Whales are not herbivores, but being a herbivore within the ocean is actually quite uncommon. The only reason whales are able to become larger than the largest land-dwelling mammals is because of the way that the ocean displaces gravity, therefore providing resistance to the pull which would under normal circumstances cause whales to collapse under their own weight. The primary reason the largest land animals are herbivores is because of food resources. There are a staggering amount of plant resources made abundant for herbivores in comparison to the relatively small amount of protein rich resources available to carnivores. Plant resources are also quickly renewable unlike protein resources. Herbivores are apt to survive predation as they increase in size whilst carnivores actually become hindered as they increase in size due to the fact that they become slower and less agile making their ability to catch prey severely reduced

The Effects of Hydrocephalus

hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus affects over 500,000 children worldwide. Hydrocephalus can be caused by infection, genetic anomalies, or head injuries. The reason hydrocephalus causes the heads of infants to grow so incredibly large is because all babies are born with soft, mailable skulls which are capable of expanding over 3x its typical size within the first 12 – 18 months after birth. Hydrocephalus is caused because the valve located between the left and right brain hemispheres which drains cerebrospinal fluid down the spine and into the abdomen, becomes blocked. When medical examinations are available, hydrocephalus can be diagnosed in utero allowing for immediate intervention. When the severity of hydrocephalus is diagnosed via computed tomography scan, the brain does not show up, as the water present takes up so much volume that the cavity where the brain would normally be, shows up as black, as water obstructs the ability of the scanner to take a complete image. The most common intervention of hydrocephalus is the installation of a shunt, but shunts have an 80% failure rate causing future uncertainty for those who have experienced hydrocephalus. Uganda has an unusually high occurrence rate of hydrocephalus primarily due to high rates of infant infection and lack of medical facilities and care

The Effects of a Western Diet On Health

western-diet

Overall health and quality of life typically are reduced dramatically after the age of 65 for people who subscribe to consuming a typical western diet. The average American may live to be 79 on paper, but in practice a wide bell curve must be observed which states that the majority of people, or at the very least 50% of people in this range die between the ages of 60 and 79. Those who adopt a nutritarian diet can typically expect 15 – 20 more years than a person who consumed a typical western diet, but what’s more is that those years are spent in good health not poor or deteriorating health, observing a vastly reduced, thin bell curve which sees a peak of 98 years of age with death occurring between 80 – 120 with virtually all living past 85

Preventable Death

spirit-in-hospital

The World Health Organization has declared that over 60% of deaths worldwide are caused by non-communicable, preventable disease. These diseases include asthma, diabetes, celiac disease, obesity, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and select mental disorders. These specific illnesses have continued to rise on an upward trajectory throughout the 21st century with no current sign of leveling off. The World Health Organization estimates that these particular disease processes will increase by a rate of 17% within the next decade and that the cost of treatment has the potential ability to bankrupt the entire global healthcare system by the year 2030, a cost which could topple over $47,000,000,000,000 ($47 trillion). To provide frame of reference, most countries have a total output of less than $1,000,000,000,000 ($1 trillion) per year, a measurement which includes every citizen, business, and system designed to stimulate trade and generate income. The main causative factors for the above mentioned diseases are smoking, consumption of alcohol, adherence to a poor diet, and lack of exercise

Physical Size of Neanderthals

Neanderthal

Neanderthals were on average 6” shorter than human beings, due to their vast musculature caused by androgen hormones within their bodies which may have caused them to act more aggressive than their human counterparts. Neanderthals were barrel-chested with pectoral muscles twice the size that of a human beings chest. While Neanderthals were shorter than humans, their extra muscle mass would mean that a Neanderthal and human being could weigh the same mass but the Neanderthal would be up to 90% stronger than the human

Weight Lost Prior to Bariatric Surgery

bariatric-surgery

The reason bariatric patients are required to lose weight before undergoing bariatric surgery is because the liver becomes enlarged in obese patients and this enlarged liver sits directly atop of the area which needs to be operated upon. Shrinking of the liver is crucial prior to surgery to ensure the surgery is performed as safely as possible