Galileo Galilei’s Telescope Design Improvement upon the Dutch Spyglass Design

Galileo-Galilei-telescopeIt had been known since the first spectacles were produced in the middle of the 13th century, that glass was capable of bending light, a property which no other known material of the period could achieve. The Dutch spyglass worked upon this very principal, arranging lenses with careful attention to detail to create a compounding magnification effect. If light hits a plano-convex (pronounced “play-noh”) lens, which is flat upon one side and convex upon the other, the same formation used for those who suffer from hyperopia, rays of light streaming inward are bent toward eachother, eventually meeting and converging at a specific triangular point. Right before this focal point, Galilei improved the original Dutch design by placing his second lens, an ocular lens which is plano-concave, meaning flat upon one side and concave upon the other, the same formation used for those who suffer from myopia. This secondary lens pushes the bent rays of converging light back out again so that they can hit the eye and provide a clear image. The eye focuses this light upon the retina so that the observer can view the image produced by the spyglass. The magnification power of a telescope depends upon the ratio between the focal lengths of the lenses, with these distances marked as F1 for the distance between the front of the spyglass and the plano-concave lens, and F2 from the plano-concave lens toward the back of the spyglass. The largest difficulty impeding Galilei was the grinding down process of his convex lens, in an attempt to make it as shallow as possible to maximize the length of the F1 partition, as the longer the distance is, the greater the magnification will be. Within a few weeks of developing this new technology, Galilei’s first telescope had a clear magnification of 8x, far exceeding the power of the original Dutch spyglass. On August 21, 1609, Galilei climbed a Venice bell tower to meet up with Venetian nobles and senators so that he could display his new technology. This new bleeding edge feat of engineering permitted Venetians to spot sailing ships 2 hours earlier than if they had used the naked eye. 3 days after the event, Galilei gifted his telescope to the Duke of Venice and was afforded a guaranteed job for life in exchange, with this salary equating to double his original income. With his finances secured, Galilei went on to develop and produce even more powerful telescopes

The Future of Body Modification


Near field communication, often abbreviated as “NFC” is the ability for wireless devices to communicate with eachother and has now made its way into the bodies of human beings with some opting to implant small subdermal microchips using a large gauge hypodermic syringe (e.g. 14 – 18 gauge) which is preloaded so that these individuals gain the ability to start their vehicle(s), open their home door locks, send contact information to another persons smartphone etc., wirelessly and without any intervention or effort upon the end user. This adaptation is referred to as “transhuman” as it goes beyond what the biological human body can do by introducing technology which cannot be evolved into existence. Devices have been developed for a number of different purposes (e.g. vibrating when pointed towards magnetic north turning the body into a compass or implanting a small chip containing tritium gas which glows beneath the skin but is radioactive and therefore not battery powered lasting indefinitely as tritium gas has a 12 year half-life etc.). In 2018, at the University of Colorado, Dr. Carson Bruns and his team developed a technology which allows for smart tattooing in that newly and highly specialized tattoo inks will be able to deliver new functions to the artistic medium of tattooing. The first design invented was a tattoo ink which is sensitive to ultraviolet light which allows it to lay invisible under typical lighting conditions and only appear as a blue hue once outside in the presense of sunlight or an artificial ultraviolet light source. This technology would be practical as well as esthetic as it would allow a person to know when they’ve had too much sun exposure while outside. Bruns’ team has also developed tattoo ink which changes color as the temperature of the body changes which again would be functional as well as artistic, acting as a thermometer to indicate when a person has had too much or too little exposure to cold or heat. Nanotechnology is used to engineer and design tattoo particles which have specialized properties and characteristics (e.g. thermal battery and/or storage mechanism). Real world applications could be spurred by this advent like the ability to keep the entire body at a comfortable temperature at all times, regardless of the environment, if the entire body was tattooed, either visibly with color or invisibly with translucent ink. Specially engineered tattooing can also have medical applications such as that of the distribution of a pharmacological medication or hormone which helps regulate biochemistry (e.g. insulin or neural catecholamines to control mood etc.). World militaries may find use with specially engineered tattoos as well, allowing skin to become more resilient to abrasions or epidermal damage. Specialized tattoo pigments are also tactile sensitive in that when touched, they have the ability to turn on or off as well as perform other functions (e.g. manipulate an options menu upon a screen or act as a controller for a game or software etc.). In 2018, billionaire futuristic Elon Musk unveiled Neuralink, a technology which he states provides the ability of “self-directed evolution”. Neuralink will be installed within the human body by using a specialized, robotic hypodermic syringe to inject an ultra thin mesh, referred to as “neuro lace”, into the neurocortex of the brain, to form a body of electrodes which are able to monitor and influence brain function. These microelectrodes will be able read and write onto neurons; a bi-directional information exchange. This will allow for the downloading and uploading of information to and from the internet, wirelessly. This technology will allow for thoughts to be sent between users in the same format that data is shared online during the modern day using peer to peer networking. This technology will also allow for the control of devices, remotely; in principle, telekinesis. Nanotechnology now provides scientists with the technology required to manufacture electronics small enough to become tattooed, which means that in the future, Neuralink will only require a small, cranial tattoo instead of a cranial implant

The End of the Universe and the Big Crunch Theory


The likelihood of a Big Crunch in which the universe expands to the point that it then collapses inward upon itself is not very probable as mathematical calculations demonstrate that there simply isn’t enough mass in the entire universe to be able to revert into into an enormous compaction. The idea of the universe folding in upon itself can be visualized by imagining a person throwing a ball in the air. The Earth has enough mass to bring a thrown ball back down to the ground but if thrown faster than the speed of escape velocity which is 11.186 kilometers per second, a thrown ball would never come back down, in fact, it would travel an infinite distance over an infinite timespan before the Earth mathematically had enough time and mass to pull the ball back to its starting position. The universe is represented by the Earth in that it acts as a force upon other objects and the ball represents all matter throughout the universe in this thought experiment

The Danger of Air Pollution Gaining Access to the Brain


The reason pollution has a metallic taste and scent and that it burns the eyes when exposed to it is because the particles of air pollution are tiny enough that they can travel through nerve cells, and gain direct entry to the brain, where the olfactory bulbar meets the frontal cortex, as there is no blood-brain barrier at this point. The body protects itself through the blood-brain barrier, which means that particles within the bloodstream, cannot get directly into the brain. This system has a slight flaw however as the nose acts as a direct conduit for incredibly tiny particles to bypass this security mechanism

The Physics of the Pac-Man Universe


The game of Pac-Man allows players to exit the world on one side, and re-enter upon a completely different side without delay. Pac-Man’s universe appears to be a flat, two dimensional, rectangular shape, but in reality it must be cylindrical like a pipe, only with the 2 ends of the pipe touching, making Pac-Man’s universe actually in the shape of a donut

The Advent of the Imaginary Number Concept


The value of “i” which represents an imaginary number is quite useful for balancing seemingly impossible tasks like when resolving problems with electricity or wireless technologies. Working with wave functions involves working with the value of an imaginary number because of its ability to resolve mathematical problems. If numbers are thought of as a straight horizontal line on an X axis, with 0 in the middle, with all negative numbers on the left hand side of zero (e.g. -1, -2, -3 etc.) and all positive numbers on the right hand side of zero (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.), then imaginary numbers would be plotted upon the Y coordinate axis, displayed vertically (e.g. +1i, +2i, +3i going up or -1i, -2i, -3i going down etc.). This allows imaginary numbers to be treated the same as regular numbers, just upon a different plane of axis. Imaginary numbers are essential to certain tasks like aircraft radio tower control as imaginary numbers allow for technologies like Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR)

How Phosphorescence Works


Glow in the dark products work because of a chemical additive which allows the product to absorb energy on one frequency, and reemit it as visible light which is a different frequency. Zinc sulphide and strontium aluminate are the most commonly used phosphors for photoluminescent products as they reemit energy over a considerably long period. When light is shone upon a glow in the dark object, incoming photons excite the phosphor molecules and these molecules then release that energy taken in by releasing photons and creating a dim light glow. Different phosphors release energy at different rates and thus, the slower a phosphor releases energy, the longer it will glow. The human eye is most sensitive to green light in the dark which is why night vision technology was traditionally created with a green tint

Mathematical Evidence of the Observable Universe Actually Being Part of a Multiverse


There are 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 1080 or 100 quinquavigintillion subatomic particles in the universe, often referred to as the “Eddington number” which means that mathematically speaking, eventually after shuffling these particles over and over, the same result is bound to occur. This is precisely why the theory of the multiverse appears to be valid. These particles cannot be rearranged an infinite amount of times and therefore identical copies of the observable universe surely must show up in other parallel universes, as well as countless variations of the universe in which conditions are similar to the observable universe, but still different in some significant or insignificant manner. In a multiverse scenario, every single possible outcome is played out. After an estimated 1010^100 or 1 googolplex (1 googol being 10 with 100 zeros behind it and a googolplex being 10 with 1 googol zeros behind it) meters away from the observable universe in terms of linear measurable distance in space, another universe should theoretically be in existence already, a universe which is identical to the observable universe in every way imaginable. Because nearly every universe is uniquely different, the laws of physics could and should be vastly contrasting to what an observer within the observable universe experiences. It is estimated that there are between 1010^16 – 1010^10^7 or 100 septentrigintillion – 100 trecenquattuortrigintillion different universes. This estimate is predicated upon the fact that the amount of information which a single individual can absorb is 10,000,000,000,000,000 or 1016 or 10 quadrillion bits of data within their lifetime, which is equivalent to 1010^16 or 100 septentrigintillion configurations, and this means that the human brain is physically incapable of distinguishing more than 1010^16 or 100 septentrigintillion universes

Henri Becquerel’s Discovery of the Glow of Radioactive Materials


In 1896 French scientist Henri Becquerel was working with radioactive substances and found that under ultraviolet light, these elements began to glow. Becquerel left radioactive uranium salts overnight on a photographic plate which had never been exposed to light. The next day a dark shadow emerged which Becquerel realized was the markings of energy, radioactive energy and therefore discovered radioactivity

Hugh Everett’s “Many World’s” Theory


Hugh Everett designed the Many World’s Theory which states that if in the first world a particle is found on the left side, in the second world that same particle is found on the right side, with both findings being equally valid. Everett’s main conclusion was that when a particle splits in 2 to act as a wave, the universe also splits into 2 pieces, only going through 1 of the 2 available slits, but doing so in separate universes. The Many World’s theory is now generally accepted as fact by most physicists, however Everett died before receiving the recognition he deserved for his work. Everett’s theory was treated with a frosty reception when it was first released, as most scientists considered such a theory to be science fiction and speculation rather than proper observed and analyzed fact