Space Archeologist


The term “space archeologist” is used to describe “archeologists who use National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellites to discover artifacts hidden below the surface level of the Earth”. Measuring a chemical signature seen only with satellite imagery in a process referred to as “chemical spectrography”, this new and innovative method of archaeological surveying measures off gassing from the ground (which is invisible to the naked eye) by harnessing light from the infrared light spectrum. Subtle differences in chlorophyll indicate changes in vegetation health as plants growing on top of ancient relics are less healthy than their counterparts near by. This allows space archeologists to create maps of what’s below the Earth (e.g. pyramids and amphitheaters)

Thermoluminescence Dating of Pottery


The dating of pottery artifacts can be accurately performed by using a technique referred to as “thermoluminescence”. Thermoluminescence involves taking a small sample of an artifact of pottery and heating it up using doses of high energy radiation which creates excited electron states in crystalline materials like pottery. In some materials, these electron states are trapped or arrested for extended periods of time by a localized defect, or imperfection. In terms of the quantum world, these states are stationary states which have no formal time dependence, however they are not stable energetically and when the material is heated it enables these trapped energy states to interact with photons to rapidly decay into lower energy states, causing the emission of photons in the process. The photons are measured and dependent of how many escape, a specified measurement of the total age can be determined. This technique can be used on most minerals and is the only method available to provide exact dating in respect to pottery as the results yielded do not have to be compared against a comparison artifact. Certain minerals store energy from the sun at a known rate and this energy is lodged in the imperfect lattices of a mineral’s crystals. Heating these crystals when creating pottery empties the stored energy reserves, after which time the mineral begins absorbing energy again. Thermoluminescence dating is a matter of comparing the current energy stored in a crystal to what should be there had not pottery not been heated during the creation process thereby establishing a “last heated during” marker or date

Bose-Einstein Condensate


Bose-Einstein condensate

When atoms become extremely cold and reach absolute zero on the Kelvin scale they enter what’s referred to as a “Bose-Einstein Condensate” which is a state of matter that causes individual atoms to lose their individual properties thus leading them to mash together and act strangely in their behavioral properties. Atoms become so smeared that their waves start looking indistinguishable from incredibly hot and compressed atoms like the kind found inside the inner core of neutron stars, stars which are so dense that a single teaspoon would weigh 10,000,000,000 (10 billion) tonnes