The End of the Universe and the Big Crunch Theory

big-crunch

The likelihood of a Big Crunch in which the universe expands to the point that it then collapses inward upon itself is not very probable as mathematical calculations demonstrate that there simply isn’t enough mass in the entire universe to be able to revert into into an enormous compaction. The idea of the universe folding in upon itself can be visualized by imagining a person throwing a ball in the air. The Earth has enough mass to bring a thrown ball back down to the ground but if thrown faster than the speed of escape velocity which is 11.186 kilometers per second, a thrown ball would never come back down, in fact, it would travel an infinite distance over an infinite timespan before the Earth mathematically had enough time and mass to pull the ball back to its starting position. The universe is represented by the Earth in that it acts as a force upon other objects and the ball represents all matter throughout the universe in this thought experiment

The Danger of Air Pollution Gaining Access to the Brain

air-pollution

The reason pollution has a metallic taste and scent and that it burns the eyes when exposed to it is because the particles of air pollution are tiny enough that they can travel through nerve cells, and gain direct entry to the brain, where the olfactory bulbar meets the frontal cortex, as there is no blood-brain barrier at this point. The body protects itself through the blood-brain barrier, which means that particles within the bloodstream, cannot get directly into the brain. This system has a slight flaw however as the nose acts as a direct conduit for incredibly tiny particles to bypass this security mechanism

The Physics of the Pac-Man Universe

Pac-Man.png

The game of Pac-Man allows players to exit the world on one side, and re-enter upon a completely different side without delay. Pac-Man’s universe appears to be a flat, two dimensional, rectangular shape, but in reality it must be cylindrical like a pipe, only with the 2 ends of the pipe touching, making Pac-Man’s universe actually in the shape of a donut

The Advent of the Imaginary Number Concept

imaginary-number

Any positive number multiplied by itself equates to a positive number as a final result. A negative number multiplied by itself however also gives a positive value, contrary to logic. Any number squared, meaning multiplied by itself, will always result in a positive value. The value of “i” which represents an imaginary number is quite useful for balancing seemingly impossible tasks like when resolving problems with electricity or wireless technologies. Working with wave functions involves working with the value of an imaginary number because of its ability to resolve mathematical problems. If numbers are thought of as a straight horizontal line on an X axis, with 0 in the middle, with all negative numbers on the left hand side of zero (eg. -1, -2, -3 etc.) and all positive numbers on the right hand side of zero (eg. 1, 2, 3, etc.), then imaginary numbers would be plotted upon the Y coordinate axis, displayed vertically (eg. +1i, +2i, +3i going up or -1i, -2i, -3i going down etc.). This allows imaginary numbers to be treated the same as regular numbers, just upon a different plane of axis, in a two dimensional construct which exists only within the mind. Imaginary numbers are essential to certain tasks like aircraft radio tower control as imaginary numbers allow for technologies like Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR)

How Phosphorescence Works

phosphorescence

Glow in the dark products work because of a chemical additive which allows the product to absorb energy on one frequency, and reemit it as visible light which is a different frequency. Zinc sulphide and strontium aluminate are the most commonly used phosphors for photoluminescent products as they reemit energy over a considerably long period. When light is shone upon a glow in the dark object, incoming photons excite the phosphor molecules and these molecules then release that energy taken in by releasing photons and creating a dim light glow. Different phosphors release energy at different rates and thus, the slower a phosphor releases energy, the longer it will glow. The human eye is most sensitive to green light in the dark which is why night vision technology was traditionally created with a green tint

Mathematical Evidence of the Observable Universe Actually Being Part of a Multiverse

cosmos

There are 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^80 or 100 quinquavigintillion subatomic particles in the universe, often referred to as the “Eddington number” which means that mathematically speaking, eventually after shuffling these particles over and over, the same result is bound to occur. This is precisely why the theory of the multiverse appears to be valid. These particles cannot be rearranged an infinite amount of times and therefore identical copies of the observable universe surely must show up in other parallel universes, as well as countless variations of the universe in which conditions are similar to the observable universe, but still different in some significant or insignificant manner. In a multiverse scenario, every single possible outcome is played out. After an estimated 10^10^100 or 1 googolplex (1 googol being 10 with 100 zeros behind it and a googolplex being 10 with 1 googol zeros behind it) meters away from the observable universe in terms of linear measurable distance in space, another universe should theoretically be in existence already, a universe which is identical to the observable universe in every way imaginable. Because nearly every universe is uniquely different, the laws of physics could and should be vastly contrasting to what an observer within the observable universe experiences. It is estimated that there are between 10^10^16 – 10^10^10^7 or 100 septentrigintillion – 100 trecenquattuortrigintillion different universes. This estimate is predicated upon the fact that the amount of information which a single individual can absorb is 10,000,000,000,000,000 or 10^16 or 10 quadrillion bits of data within their lifetime, which is equivalent to 10^10^16 or 100 septentrigintillion configurations, and this means that the human brain is physically incapable of distinguishing more than 10^10^16 or 100 septentrigintillion universes

Henri Becquerel’s Discovery of the Glow of Radioactive Materials

Henri-Becquerel

In 1896 French scientist Henri Becquerel was working with radioactive substances and found that under ultraviolet light, these elements began to glow. Becquerel left radioactive uranium salts overnight on a photographic plate which had never been exposed to light. The next day a dark shadow emerged which Becquerel realized was the markings of energy, radioactive energy and therefore discovered radioactivity