Space Archeologist

space-archeology

The term “space archeologist” is used to describe “archeologists who use National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellites to discover artifacts hidden below the surface level of the Earth”. Measuring a chemical signature seen only with satellite imagery in a process referred to as “chemical spectrography”, this new and innovative method of archaeological surveying measures off gassing from the ground (which is invisible to the naked eye) by harnessing light from the infrared light spectrum. Subtle differences in chlorophyll indicate changes in vegetation health as plants growing on top of ancient relics are less healthy than their counterparts near by. This allows space archeologists to create maps of what’s below the Earth (e.g. pyramids and amphitheaters)

Stealth Aircraft Technology

stealth-aircraft

Stealth aircraft are shaped and angled as such so that any signal bounced off of them bounces in a direction different than that of how it came in making Radio Detection and Ranging or Radio Direction And Ranging (RADAR) unable to ping and receive a signal back which makes stealth aircraft essentially invisible as they cannot be seen with the naked eye due to the incredible speed and height at which they travel, nor can it be tracked with technology

The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency

DARPA

The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a small agency of only 200 people with a fixed infrastructure (e.g. set number of laboratories) but an absolutely astounding annual budget of $3,000,000,000 ($3 billion). DARPA was founded in 1958, coinciding the same year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was founded

Thermoluminescence Dating of Pottery

pottery

The dating of pottery artifacts can be accurately performed by using a technique referred to as “thermoluminescence”. Thermoluminescence involves taking a small sample of an artifact of pottery and heating it up using doses of high energy radiation which creates excited electron states in crystalline materials like pottery. In some materials, these electron states are trapped or arrested for extended periods of time by a localized defect, or imperfection. In terms of the quantum world, these states are stationary states which have no formal time dependence, however they are not stable energetically and when the material is heated it enables these trapped energy states to interact with photons to rapidly decay into lower energy states, causing the emission of photons in the process. The photons are measured and dependent of how many escape, a specified measurement of the total age can be determined. This technique can be used on most minerals and is the only method available to provide exact dating in respect to pottery as the results yielded do not have to be compared against a comparison artifact. Certain minerals store energy from the sun at a known rate and this energy is lodged in the imperfect lattices of a mineral’s crystals. Heating these crystals when creating pottery empties the stored energy reserves, after which time the mineral begins absorbing energy again. Thermoluminescence dating is a matter of comparing the current energy stored in a crystal to what should be there had not pottery not been heated during the creation process thereby establishing a “last heated during” marker or date

Technological Advances in Film

David-Attenborough-camera

Until the 1980’s, nature documentarians like a David Attenborough, could only film underwater for 10 minutes at a time before rising to the surface to swap out the film roll which had just been used, as it would be full after such time. Video tapes solved this issue as they permitted the person using it to film for 30 minutes. Video tapes were also more sensitive than traditional film reels and therefore low light conditions could be filmed for the first time, making artificial lights unnecessary. The security industry developed infrared cameras within the coming decades which made filming nocturnal animals possible for the first time, without the use of artificial lights which disturbed the nocturnal animals natural processes. Soon after cameras which use neither artificial light nor infrared light but rather low light provided by the stars and the moon became available which made it possible to record animals in blue and white hues, similar to infrared but not the same, as eyes are not reflective as is the case with infrared. These star and moonlight cameras make nighttime appear more natural, making the night appear as it does to human beings during the latter part of dusk. During this time, optical probes were invented which made possible the ability to dive into the world of burrowed animals and insects. Macro and micro lenses as well as the ability to slow down and speed up the perception of time are not new concepts, but they have been vastly improved in the most recent decades and because of this, distinguished details can be recorded which are impossible to see with the naked eye. Ariel photography gained leaps and bounds in its ability to fit into tightly enclosed spaces by moving from airplanes, to helicopters, to hot air balloons, and finally to drones. Animated figures both static and dynamic helped illustrate when narrating about historical figures like dinosaurs, and models created by hand led to further this style of narrative, but the technique of after shot animation did not truly get it’s wings until the technology of computer animation caught up to movie special effects and then surpassed them by looking more realistic than any model which could be designed by hand