Middle Eastern Tile Craftspeople


Middle Eastern tile craftspeople developed the technique of hand made tiles by placing refined clay into a mold and etching 3 finger marks into the back of the tile. This method was devised to ensure that the tile would be able to grip the grout placed behind it upon the wall during installation. These same craftspeople created the method of slowly heating their molded tiles over 36 hours to temperatures above 540 degrees Celsius. At temperatures which reach this height and when provided enough time, the particles within the clay fuse together which turns the clay into ceramic. The final step to this process was the addition of glaze which was essentially liquid glass. The only step which proceeded this finishing of the tile was the painting of said tile, which was usually performed using bright contrasting colors following geometric patterns which provide a dazzling array of shapes when viewed from afar

The Evolution of the Eye


The eye has developed within the animal kingdom for one reason only; to detect the world around the observer. The first evolved eyes were simply an apparatus which had a light sensitive cell referred to as “rhodopsin”. Eventually as time progressed, eyes developed a spherical shape which allowed more light to be captured so that the difference between light and dark was more distinct. Following this, eyes evolved the ability to develop a pupil which acts as a biological aperture which can constrict and dilate letting either more or less light into the eye. This system works in theory but the real world application developed a problem in that when constricting the pupil to focus on an object being looked at, less light is let in which restricts vision. Nature eventually alleviated this issue by placing a lens behind the aperture of the pupil which allowed for precision detail, clarity, and focus. This system was so effective that evolution produced some form of it for nearly every animal and insect on Earth, some being more adept than others, but all using the same principal of light and focus to observe information around them

Ultraviolet Radiation Sterilization


Ultraviolet radiation disrupts the chemical bonds which hold bacteria and viruses together. Ultraviolet radiation is able to kill the cell and ensures whatever material is exposed afterwards becomes sterile. The longer an organism is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the less likely it is to have any microbes alive upon it. Hospitals and various industries utilize this method of sterilization to ensure their equipment and environment is as free of microorganisms as possible

Herbivore vs. Carnivore Vision


Animals which have eyes placed upon the sides of their heads (e.g. squirrels, zebras, frogs etc.) are typically herbivores and prey for carnivores. Herbivores need to have their field of vision constantly focused upon what’s going on around them. Animals which have eyes on the front of their heads (e.g. owls, tigers, human beings etc.) are usually carnivores. Carnivores are predators and because of this they need to constantly be focused upon what is in front of them for activities like chasing down prey in an attempt to capture and eventually kill what they catch. Human beings can demonstrate this difference for themselves by placing one’s hands in front of their eyes as they would binoculars, then crossing their wrists and cupping their hands so that they see only from the sides of their face. This demonstrates the different abilities predator and prey have in respect to what is in focus within a particular classifications field of vision. Panoramic vantage points which herbivore prey have allow for more information to be taken in at once, but binocular vantage points which carnivorous predators have allow for depth perception which most herbivores do not have, and even when they do have it, it’s accuracy is highly limited

Fermat’s Last Theorem

Fermat's-Last-TheoremFermat’s last theorem was the last problem Pierre de Fermat ever claimed to have solved. Fermat often wrote in the margins of his books and one particular evening, while reading Arithmetica by the Greek mathematician Diophantus, he wrote “I have the answer to this equation, but the margin is too small to contain it”. Hours later that same night after writing this notation, Fermat died. Fermat was famous for writing in the margin of a books when he had figured out the correct answer for a problem, but for some reason he never provided the answer. Fermat was proven correct in each accounted notation by future mathematicians who came along posthumously. Fermat’s last claim however was unable to be solved and proven for centuries. Fermat’s last claim posited that the Pythagorean equation of a^2 + b^2 = c^2 does not have an infinite number of solutions when the squared exponent of all 3 numbers is any number greater than 1 or 2 (e.g. it is impossible to separate a biquadrant or cube into 2 biquadrants or 2 cubes, only squared numbers can be separated into 2). Andew Wiles of Princeton University eventually solved this equation in 1993 but could not publish his work until 1995 due to an error. Wiles resolved this problem 3 centuries after Fermat as no other mathematician was able to figure it out

Quartz Veins Filled With Gold


The California gold rush during the 1840’s caused hundreds of thousands of people to engage in mass migration. After any gold laying upon the surface had been excavated, miners dug into the ground to continue in their search. Miners surveyed for quartz veins as quartz virtually always meant that gold was nearby. Most gold sinks into the Earth’s core with other heavy metals like iron but occasionally, some gold remains with lighter minerals like quartz which is why gold can often be found imbedded inside of quartz. The reason gold nestles in with quartz is because earthquakes cause natural fissures to occur which provide pathways for superheated water containing minerals. This mineral packed water then cools down and the minerals carried within the flooded cracks left from the fissures, crystallize

Clovis Point


The Clovis Point which is named after the site at which it was first discovered in New Mexico, United States of America, is the most well recognized and most frequently found spearhead left behind by early Homo sapiens. Clovis Points are found throughout North America which definitively demonstrates the existence of trade as far back as 10,000 years ago. The Clovis Point spear tip is a symmetrical fluted shape with sharp edged profiles on both sides. Flint rock was often used as it was easily acquired and readily shaped, but Chert was the most common rock used. Chert was used because it breaks with a razor sharp edge if struck properly with a piece of bone or rock