The Lifetime Imprisonment of Typhoid Mary for the Spread of Disease Via Food Preparation


Mary Mallon was an Irish cook who was imprisoned for life for not washing her hands properly prior to preparing food. Mallon, an immigrant often referred to as “Typhoid Mary” unknowingly spread typhoid as she did not see a need to wash her hands frequently. Everywhere Mallon worked, people got sick or died which eventually lead to her apprehension. In 1882, the German physician Robert Koch had published a paper proving that microorganisms transmit disease. This discovery gave birth to microbiology. In 1907, New York City, United States of America sanitary expert George Soper had tracked the typhoid outbreak down to Mallon. Suspecting Mallon was immune to the disease but still a carrier, Soper pleaded with Mallon to be tested, however Mallon refused, and angrily chasing Soper off with a dining fork. After being visited by the health board of New York City, Mallon found herself under quarantine where she remained for 3 years until she swore an affidavit to never work as a cook again. 5 years afterwards, another outbreak of typhoid occurred, this time traced back to Mary Brown, however Brown was Mallon working under an assumed identity. Mallon was quarantined once again, never being let out and dying from pneumonia while imprisoned

The Advent and Original Intent of Intelligence Quotient​ Examinations


Intelligence quotient examinations were invented by the French psychologist Alfred Binet as a way of measuring and identifying skill sets which children had or had not yet developed during their adolescence. The idea was to calculate the mental age divided by the chronological age to determine whether a child was ahead or behind their peer group

The Link Between Dementia and Iron


Measuring iron in the brain is the best known way to confirm dementia without performing an autopsy after death. The brain naturally creates tiny bits of iron referred to as “magnetite”. As a human being ages, more and more iron accumulates within the brain. Too much iron however, is a hallmark of dementia. It is theorized that this overproduction of iron is actually due to external factors like pollution rather than naturally occurring phenomena. Dr. Barbara Marr, a world renowned expert and authority in respect to the measurement of metal in incredibly small particles, took thin tissue sections of affected brains obtained during autopsy and observed them under a highly resolved transmission electronmicroscope to review the particles within the neurons of the brain and found 2 different shapes of particle. The magnetite particles are beautifully crystalline, regular and geometric, whilst the opposing particles were rounded in shape, referred to as “spherls” or “nanospheres”, rounded in shape because they were originally molten droplets. For every 1 biologically manufactured magnetite, 100 artificially implanted foreign particles of iron are found within the brains of those affected by this condition as confirmed by a study which took place in Mexico City, Mexico. Although not definitely proven, the shape of these secondary particles is remarkably similar to that of airborne pollution, which suggests to scientists that there is a discernible correlation between the 2 types

Snow in Iran During the Summer


Iran experiences snow during the winter every couple of years and even during the summer on occasion due to the topography and geography of Iran which includes high altitude mountains. Iran is a mountainous state referred to as a “plateau”. Mount Damavand, the highest peak in Iran, is a primary example of Iran’s ability to produce snow. With an elevation of 18,403′ in height, Mount Damavand always has snow to some degree, even if relatively minute, with snow occurring even during the peak summer months of June, July, and August

The Largest Family In the World


Ziona Chana who was born in 1945 in Mizoram, India has the largest family in the world. Chana’s family is so incredibly large because he practices Chana Páwl, a religion started by his father Challian Chana in 1942. Chana Páwl is claimed to be a subsect of Christianity but the faith more closely resembles a modern day cult than it does an institutionalized major religion. As of 2011, Chana has 39 wives, 32 sons, 19 daughters, 12 daughter in laws, 26 grandsons, 28 granddaughters, 3 grand daughter in laws, and 1 cousin, all living under the same roof, 161 relatives in total. This enormous family consumes an astounding 50 kilograms of rice each day

The Reason Why Corporations Continue to Outsource Jobs


Corporations in the west started to dismantle labor unions in the late 1970’s and were successful in their pursuit as the economy at this time was starting to become globalized which allowed companies to threaten to migrate production overseas when workers threatened to strike or refuse their working conditions. This tactic forced labor unions to dissolve as refusal could and most likely would result in complete job loss for every member of the group. The administration of President Ronald Regan ushered in deregulation alongside multiple income tax cuts for corporations and wealthy individuals, and as a direct result of these policies, corporate shareholders began to exercise more and more influence over the way these companies conducted business. Feeling the pressure and scrutiny of Wall Street, businesses began to view labor as expendable and as an expense which needed to be offloaded from balance sheets, leading to many jobs being outsourced within a relatively short period of time, to more impoverished nations which had weaker labor laws but most importantly to the participating corporations, these states also had and continue to have much lower minimum wages which is the primary driving factor as to why outsourcing continues to occur in virtually all industrialized countries

The Evolution of Primitive and Sophisticated Neural Networks


The human brain has 100,000,000,000,000 (100 trillion) connections and 86,000,000,000 (86 billion) neurons, which is more connections and neurons than there are stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. Ironically, the majority of the most successful creatures on Earth do not have a brain; organisms like plants, coral, and jellyfish. The sea squirt is a primary example as it has just 200 neurons, allowing it only to perceive and display simple interaction with the environment by sensing light and moving its flagellum. The sea squirt moves around until it finds a rock, then it dumps its tail and uses those once dedicated neurons for different applications, staying anchored to this spot for the rest of its life. Neurons were originally designed to allow for simple motion and movement, but as evolution progressed steadily, neural networks began to build and design intelligent life which is capable of consciousness and a sense of self but also more abstract concepts like art, mathematics, and science