Photographic Evidence of Lewis Carroll’s Alleged Pedaphilia Involving Alice Liddell, the Protagonist of Alice In Wonderland

Alice-LiddellA photograph linked to Lewis Carroll was found in the Musée Cantini, a French museum in Marseille, France, which depicts what appears to be a pubescent aged Lorina Liddell who was the younger sister of Alice Liddell, the person whom the fictional character of Alice in Alice In Wonderland was based upon. The photograph is problematic as it displays Liddell, fully nude, from a frontal angle. It’s unclear if the photograph was taken by Carroll or only linked to him, and it’s not completely clear as to whether or not the girl in the photograph is actually Liddell. The image isn’t permitted to leave France, so any study upon the subject must be conducted within the borders of the country. In 1993, Carroll expert Edward Wakeling deemed the photo to be not of Liddell after repeated examination and comparison to other images of Liddell. Nicholas Burnett, a picture conservationist with specialized knowledge in 19th century photography technology has stated that he believes the inscription upon the photograph which states “Lorina Liddell, Carroll, Col, MC” is actually a dealers notation which states what the photograph is of, where it came from, and denotes that it’s part of a collection, hence the abbreviation “col”. It’s unclear what “MC” stands for as the Musée Cantini does not use this abbreviation, but it could possibly stand for “Musée Cantini”. Carroll photographed the Liddell girls during the 1860’s which is crucial because the photograph in question has a slow growth mold which is difficult to reproduce fraudulently, beneath a thin layer of egg white albumin used as an outer coating. This photograph is known to have been cropped as the negative is larger than the print which is impossible to achieve unless the photograph itself was cut down. Carrol favored using an Ottawa Walls folding camera which is the same kind of camera which created the photograph in question. Finally, the print was made from a wet collodion negative which is a printing technique which Carroll is known to have used. If the photograph was from a later date, it would have used a paper negative which would have caused it to appear less crisp and clear. The evidence seems to suggest that Carroll did indeed take and develop the photograph. Forensic comparative analysis using modern scientific methods of comparing one photograph to another were used to examine the photograph and experts concluded that the girl in the photograph, is indeed Lorina as the eyes, specifically the epicanthic fold of the eyes, matches that of photographs of Lorina when she is in her adult years, as well as her elder years. The nose provides another example of evidence as the width of the nose at the nasion, meaning the point between the eyes and the bridge of the nose, the width of the alae (pronounced “ail-ee”) which is the spongy part of the side of the nose, and the nostrils are all broadly consistent with later photographs of Lorina. The lips provide further evidence, and perhaps the most interesting of all the compiled evidence as the lips definitively show a Cupid’s bow upon the upper lip, but also a lower lip which is prominent and protruding upon the right side, but not the left. These features forensically demonstrate that there is moderate likelihood that the photograph of the pubescent girl is indeed Lorina. The leader of the forensics team which evaluated the evidence at hand has gone on record to state that because no court case involved, it can confidently be stated that the photograph in question is in fact Lorina, however it should be noted that if a court case were pursuant, the evidence presented may not be enough to garner a conviction as its lacking solid, definitive proof, beyond and to the exclusion of reasonable doubt

The Financial Costs of High Society Dinner Parties During the Victorian Era

high-society-dinner-party

During the 19th century, a typical high society dinner menu for 20 people would have cost $100.00 in total, for the Earl of an estate, equivalent to the annual salary of a maid for 2 full years of service. When accounting for inflation, the cost of hosting and entertaining a monarch during this period was even more costly, costing hosts approximately $500,000. Earl’s needed to constantly be aware of and ready for a royal visit as their title is considered one step below the pole position of Duke, which of course is one step below the title of King or Queen

South Korean Culture and the Importance of Facial Symmetry and Beauty

South-Korean-gwansang

Facial structure is incredibly important in South Korea and professionals are available who specialize physiognomy, the practice of reading facial features the same way palm readers read the lines of the palm to determine ones supposed fortune (e.g. the forehead supposedly represents luck, up to the age of 30, as well as a person’s parents luck and the nose represents oneself in their entirety and can also be indicative of wealth). The facial reading process is a pseudoscience similar to phrenology of the 19th century. The practice of facial queue reading is actually quite commonplace with top employers like Samsung, LG, and Kia using facial reading experts to help decide who the company should hire for various positions. The body is also accounted for in this reading, but on a much smaller scale. Facial readers claim to be able to predict and decode a persons fortune, career, and wealth, not only for the person being examined, but also of their parents. This process is referred to in Korean as “gwansang”

The Art Collection of King George IV

King-George-IV

King George IV’s excessive consumption was completely out of synchronization with his income with George IV needing to rely upon the British parliament multiple times to bail him out of financial ruin. George IV’s over spending was so bad that parliament actually forced him to marry in exchange for hundreds of thousands of pounds worth of debts to be forgiven. Although George IV is thought of as extravagant and profligatory, the truth is that the combined value of his collection equates to an average modern day value of £10,000,000 (£10 million) for every £1000.00 George IV spent during the 19th century. It should be noted that this large gain is due primarily to the intrinsic and irreplaceable value of the items as £1000.00 in 1800 would only be worth £83,000 as of 2019 when accounting for inflation

The Reason Behind the Anglo-Burmese War

Burmese-woman

The annexation of Burma, which is modern day Myanmar, by England, occurred in 1885. The conquering and colonization of Burma was a long and drawn out process involving 3 wars in 1824 – 1826, 1852, and finally 1885, each a pivotal part of the Anglo-Burmese War. After successfully dominating Burma, the British made the decision to annex all of Upper Burma as a colony and to make the country as a whole, a province of British India. During the 19th century, Burma was a matriarchal society and the majority of commerce was run and ruled by Burmese women, a society which was notorious in the west for shrewd business practices. Burma was during this period a matriarchal society, and it is believed that this is due in large part to the fact that the country as a whole was primarily Buddhist and Buddhist cultures tend to hold women in higher regard than other parts of the world. The conflict between the British and the Burmese erupted because of trade, as the British wanted the absolute shortest route to China which involved crossing through Burma to avoid the Bay of Bengal

The Most Successful Pirate In Human History

Ching-Shih

The most successful pirate in human history was Ching Shih (pronounced “ching-she”) colloquially known as “Cheng I Sao” (pronounced “jung-ee-ss-ow”) which means “wife of Cheng I” in Mandarin. During the 19th century, Ching commanded 80,000 sailors, 1500 ships, and was able to talk herself out of imprisonment when finally captured by the Chinese monarchy. After acquiring amnesty from the Chinese state, Ching opened a casino, moving from notorious and infamous pirate, to legitimate business mogul in one swift motion

The Defiant American Natural Landscape Art Form and Luminism

Albert-Bierstadt-Among-the-Sierra-Nevada-California-American-landscape

Artists in the America’s who continually pushed further west, pioneered the technique of “luminism” which used light effects and concealed brush strokes to create paintings which were considered so overwhelming detailed that opera glasses were needed to fully appreciate their true beauty. The American landscape was psychologically bore out of feelings of inferiority and competition with the European continent, as the Americas at this time were not the industrialized indomitable power they are today, but rather a fairly poor country still developing itself and not yet having reached the same milestones which Europe had already accomplished. During the 18th and 19th century, those living in the Americas rejected the notion that Rome, Italy was the center of art and that the best landscapes with the highest and most spectacular mountains were only found in places like France and Switzerland, as the west had its own mountains and its own unique monoliths and animals which could be depicted and celebrated to create American pride within the American landscape

The Sale of Meat In New York City, United States of America During the 19th Century

19th-century-butcher

Butchers in the 19th century often turned rotting meat into sausage so that the meat it was made up of was unidentifiable and palatable. Butchers added the chemical compound Borax which is sodium borate to cover up the scent of the meat because the boracic acid would kill any bacteria present upon the meat. It was later discovered that Borax is ideal for keeping wounds clean, killing cockroaches, and cleaning floors, which provides a clear frame of reference in terms of its potential safety hazards when consumed. The meat would still smell and taste bad and would cause those who consumed it to become sick but despite this, butchers would add red clothing dye made from coal tar which sometimes had arsenic in it to freshen up the grey and brown color of the meat so that it was more visually presentable to consumers. Finally, stale bread or cookies were added to bind everything together before the meat was sold

The Rise of the Electric and Gasoline Automobile to Combat Horse Manure

19th-century-city

In the late 19th century there were 200,000 horses in New York City, United States of America, producing over 400,000 tonnes of manure. Getting rid of this waste was directly what spawned the automobile, both the electric version and the gasoline. The fate of the electric car was sealed in 1908 when Henry Ford launched the Model T. The Model T was mass produced and undercut its cheapest competitor by 33%. Within 5 years of introduction, the automobile eliminated 90% of horses in New York City