The Etymology of “Matter Plasma” and “Blood Plasma”


The term “plasma” is derived from the ancient Greek term “plassein” which means to “shape or mold something”. Plasma related to physics, specifically matter which has had its electrons separated from the rest of its atoms, forcing it to become an ion, more specifically a mixture of free floating electrons and ions, was first identified by British chemist and physicist Sir William Crookes in 1879 using cathode ray tubes. Crookes referred to this discovery initially as “radiant matter” but it became known as “plasma” in 1928 because of American chemist Irving Langmuir. Langmuir was exploring ionized gases, gases which were subjected to strong electrical fields to remove electrons from their orbital shells. Langmuir used the analogy of blood to explain this phenomena, with the ions representative of corpuscles and the remaining gas thought of as clear liquid. Blood is similar to plasma in that it is primarily comprised of 2 components which include its clear liquid and the corpuscles/cells entrapped within this fluid. This clear liquid was named “plasma” by Czech physiologist Johannes Purkinje In 1927. The definition of matter plasma and blood plasma however have absolutely nothing to do with eachother physically, aside from the fact that two different scientists had the idea to use the same term at approximately the same time. It is believed that these two scientists based their name upon the ancient Greek definition of the term “plasma”

The Art Collection of King George IV


King George IV’s excessive consumption was completely out of synchronization with his income with George IV needing to rely upon the British parliament multiple times to bail him out of financial ruin. George IV’s over spending was so bad that parliament actually forced him to marry in exchange for hundreds of thousands of pounds worth of debts to be forgiven. Although George IV is thought of as extravagant and profligatory, the truth is that the combined value of his collection equates to an average modern day value of £10,000,000 (£10 million) for every £1000.00 George IV spent during the 19th century. It should be noted that this large gain is due primarily to the intrinsic and irreplaceable value of the items as £1000.00 in 1800 would only be worth £83,000 as of 2019 when accounting for inflation

Prince Charles’ Environmentally Friendly Vehicles


Prince Charles owns an Aston Martin Volante which has been retrofitted to run upon surplus British white wine and whey. Charles received the vehicle when he was 21 and requested that engineers find a more sustainable fuel source for its engine because of his initiative to address climate change and the issues facing humanity before the 21st century. The engineers who worked upon the project felt that the task was insurmountable during the beginning of their research however after having successfully built such an engine, it is now accepted that the retrofitted engine actually runs better with more power upon white wine and whey than it does upon petrol, and as an added bonus feature, Charles has proclaimed that he thoroughly enjoys the delicious scent of the vehicle as it runs. Charles also had his royal train retrofitted to run upon cooking oil, another task which was successfully completed so that Charles can use the train half a dozen times per year

The Reason Behind the Anglo-Burmese War


The annexation of Burma, which is modern day Myanmar, by England, occurred in 1885. The conquering and colonization of Burma was a long and drawn out process involving 3 wars in 1824 – 1826, 1852, and finally 1885, each a pivotal part of the Anglo-Burmese War. After successfully dominating Burma, the British made the decision to annex all of Upper Burma as a colony and to make the country as a whole, a province of British India. During the 19th century, Burma was a matriarchal society and the majority of commerce was run and ruled by Burmese women, a society which was notorious in the west for shrewd business practices. Burma was during this period a matriarchal society, and it is believed that this is due in large part to the fact that the country as a whole was primarily Buddhist and Buddhist cultures tend to hold women in higher regard than other parts of the world. The conflict between the British and the Burmese erupted because of trade, as the British wanted the absolute shortest route to China which involved crossing through Burma to avoid the Bay of Bengal

Christmas On The Western Front During World War II


During World War I, a ceasefire occurred for a single day on December 25, 1914. This temporary peace was referred to as the “Christmas Truce” in English but in German it is referred to as “Weihnachtsfrieden” and in French it is referred to as “Treve de Noël”. The Christmas truce was a widespread but unofficial ceasefire along the European Western Front. In the week leading up to the Christmas, French, German, and British soldiers crossed trenches to exchange small gifts and spend time talking and drinking alcohol. While initiating the truce, Axis soldiers called out to the Allied infantry by loudly stating “you no shoot, we no shoot”. In some areas, soldiers from both sides ventured into no man’s land on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day to mingle, exchange food, and give and receive small souvenirs. Joint burial ceremonies and prisoner swaps occurred, and many meetings ended in the singing of Christmas carols. Soldiers played games of football with one another, providing one of the most memorable images of the truce which was taken during a break out game. Peaceful behavior however was not ubiquitous as fighting continued in some areas, while in others the sides settled on no more than arrangements to recover the bodies of soldiers who had recently died in combat

The Average Lifespan of a British Employee for the East India Company 


Death was quite common among the British stationed in India, with 33% of the entire British workforce dying in a single year due to the rainy season set by the monsoon. The average lifespan of a British worker in India was said to be just two monsoons, and the East India Company regularly had shipments of blank tombstones shipped from England just to keep up with the number of dying workers each month. The East India Company tried to help decrease these numbers by shipping vast quantities of spirits and wine, in the hopes that it would help increase the overall health of the workforce but unfortunately it did not do much good

Coin Ridges


In the early age of coin currency, after coins were struck, opportunistic people would excise small pieces from the edge of the coin. After doing so over and over, these people would eventually amalgamate large quantities of silver. It was such a large problem that the British government became involved in an attempt to put an end to it. Sir Isaac Newton is credited with inventing the the ridged coin as a solution, which is why to this day coins have ridges. The British government made it law that if any of the ridges were missing from any coin, the coin was no longer constituted as legal tendered currency. This solution stopped the practice of coin excision all together