The Advent of the Worlds First Parliament in Iceland

Iceland-Alþingi

When the Vikings settled Iceland, no monarch was installed, which forced these settlers to find a new system of government; democracy. The early decades of settlement were effectively without structured law, but after 2 generations, 36 leading farmer Vikings banded together to develop the concept of an assembly to govern Iceland referred to as the “Alþingi” (written “Althingi” in English) (pronounced “all-thing-ee”) in 930 A.D.. The council met once every year for 2 weeks to create laws, preside over and judge disputes, and appoint a legal speaker, whose responsibility it was to remember and recite the law. The Althingi convened at Þingvellir (written “Thingvellir” in English) (pronounced “thing-vet-lear”) which is a unique location as it is a gorge where 2 of the Earth’s tectonic plates meet and 45 kilometers east of what later became the capital city of Reykjavík, Iceland (pronounced “rake-yah-veek”). The term “Althingi” means “thing field” or “assembly field” in the Icelandic language. This form of government met for the next 800 years at this exact spot, even after merging with Norway in 1262, with the location eventually moved to Reykjavík in 1800. The Althingi is the oldest parliament in the world, which is astonishing as it is still functioning and currently running the country of Iceland as a whole

The 18th Century Gin Craze and it’s Association with Murder

19th-century-London-England-Gin-Craze

Gin was highly consumed in poorer areas of London, England as it was a cheaper alternative to beer. Gin was unregulated during the early 18th century, and was often badly distilled and filled with harmful compounds like oil of vitriol which is similar in construct to modern day turpintine, sulfuric acid, and methylated spirits. By 1750, gin consumption was at its peak, with the city of London consuming 11,000,000 (11 million) gallons per year. In the poorest areas of London, specifically upon the east end, it was not uncommon for everyone in public to be permanently drunk; an analogue to the modern day crack cocaine epidemic of the 1980’s. All members of society consumed gin including men, women, and children, with many cases exhibiting severe addictive traits as was the case with Judith Darfour, who took her child into a heath, murdered them to sell their petticoat clothing and acquire more gin, then attended work later that day as if nothing had occurred. Gin related crime soared and Mothers Ruin which refers to “women who killed their family members to acquire funds for gin” was responsible for the deaths of thousands of men, women, and children. When the death rate climbed higher than the birth rate, the British government was forced to intervene, outlawing small gin distilleries and ending the era referred to as the “Gin Craze”

The Development of Modern Institutionalized Psychological Torture as a Means of Interrogation

interrogation

In the 1950’s, Scottish psychiatrist Ewen Cameron started experimenting upon his own patients which ushered in the modern age of the psychological techniques leveraged by governments to extract information from high value targets and low level targets alike. In 1951, the U.S., the U.K., and Canada began developing the Survival Evasion Resistance Escape program, abbreviated as “SERE” (pronounced “sear”) designed for when domestic soldiers became captured by enemy forces (e.g. aircraft shot down over enemy lines) as well as techniques which could be used against captured Soviets. This research became dominant within Canadian universities for almost a decade, with researchers beginning similar psychiatric experiments within psychiatric hospitals in the U.K. In the U.S. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency dominated most research and had over 160 secret projects within 80 institutions, comprising a total of $25,000,000 ($25 million) allocated for human experimentation. This project was code named “MK Ultra”. In 1963, many of Cameron’s psychological experiments were codified for the first time and compiled within the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation hand guide, a book which is now declassified and freely available online. The term “kubark” is a cryptonym, the name for the Central Intelligence Agency itself. This content became the foundation for the method of psychological interrogation and psychological torture which the Central Intelligence Agency disseminated across the U.S. intelligence community and worldwide among allies for 30 years after its initial release. Since the 1950’s, confirmed cases backed by evidence and testimony of these techniques of torture being used have been recognized or admitted to by governments in 28 nation states including Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Borneo, Brazil, British Guyana, British Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Cuba, the UK, Guatemala, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lithuania, Morocco, Northern Ireland, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, Vienna, and Yemen

Whilst I rarely if ever will submit an opinion upon this blog, I feel that it is important to state that the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation hand guide is now declassified and been made public. To educate yourself so that these techniques cannot be used against you, click here to read the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation hand guide

The Ebola Contagion Epidemic of 2014

Ebola-virusIn late December of 2013, children of Meliandou, Guinea in West Africa found hundreds of bats nesting in a hollowed out tree. The children had no way of knowing that bats are the suspected carriers of the ebola virus. The children lit a fire and the bats scattered from the tree, allowing the children to catch and consume these bats as a source of protein. It is suspected that this is what triggered the ebola epidemic of 2014. Villagers originally thought that the illness spreading was due to witchcraft but authorities quickly identified the outbreak as ebola in an attempt to quarantine and curb the spread of the infection. Illness rapidly spread across the forest region of Guinea as those who were ill came into contact with healthcare workers whilst seeking medical attention which lead to surrounding areas becoming impacted. For 3 months, the symptoms of ebola were mistaken for cholera and malaria, which is why the contagion was unable to be controlled and halted. The problem quickly spiraled out of control with thousands becoming ill and a total of 11,315 deaths across 6 countries including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Mali, and the U.S., however the U.S. faired best with only 49 of the total deaths. The government of Guinea had no idea how to respond as all previous ebola outbreaks had occurred over 1600 kilometers away, however the relief group Doctors Without Borders had decades of experience and were able to be flown in in and effort to curb the spread of the pathogen. Within 48 hours of arrival, Doctors Without Borders had setup a field hospital in the village of Guéckédou, Guinea, the epicenter of the ebola outbreak. Past outbreaks have taught physicians that the best counter attack is to isolate the ill, monitor those who have had contact with the sick, and safely bury the dead. Due to the scale of the problem and the fact that it was not isolated to a single group or village, Doctors Without Borders did not have the resources to contain this potential global threat which is why the World Health Organization became involved, a group which is part of the United Nations and has access to the best and most expensive resources in the world, with a mandate to help governments coordinate responses to outbreaks. The main problem facing the World Health Organization is that the organization itself does not take precedent nor command of any medical situation as it is the country which is dealing with a contagion that must take this lead. Due to the fact that Guinea is a poor nation with few resources, grabbing hold of the ebola outbreak was exceedingly difficult as physicians did not have proper oversight by those in power with ebola experience, the governments of affected nations were some of the poorest in the world, and the World Health Organization was in the process of downsizing, causing the entire process to become more complicated and convoluted as decision making was scattered and often conflicted. This created the perfect storm for ebola to quickly spread across the African continent and into the western world. The government of Guinea accused Doctors Without Borders of sowing panic among the public which further elevated tensions between the 3 organizations involved. Guinea’s Ministry of Health demanded that only laboratory confirmed cases be counted towards the total ebola death count which tied the hands of physicians and their governing organizations as this act downplayed the importance and severity of just how severe the ebola outbreak truly was which lead to further contamination as the public did not treat the disease with the full gravitas of what it demanded. It is believed that this single political act is what allowed ebola to jump across borders, starting with the neighboring country of Sierra Leone as residents of both states are permitted to freely cross the borderline of either nation as often as they wish, a political policy which should have been suspended during a period of mass outbreak. Rumors of foreign physicians killing impoverished residents with syringes helped inflame already growing tensions between healthcare professionals and the general public which made working with infected or potentially infected individuals exceedingly difficult for healthcare practitioners. The corpse of an ebola victim is highly infectious but in West Africa, it is customary for friends and family to spend hours with a person after death, washing and preparing them for their burial (e.g. cutting nails and braiding hair etc.). The sudden cessation of the ability to perform this ritualistic act deeply embedded within West African culture fueled even more resent from the public which caused mass rioting and chaos to ensue, endangering the lives of those who were there to help, made worse by the lack of education, language barriers, and cultural barriers already present. It is theorized that this cultural convention played a major and definitive role in the spread of the ebola virus, as mourners often touch the body during the funerary procession. It is believed by the inhabitants of West Africa that if a body is not laid to rest properly, the ghost of that person will return to haunt the people of the village which is why this ritualistic process is so deeply embedded and revered in this region of the world. The government of Guinea had no method of contact tracing, that is to say, there was no method in place to monitor those who had come in contact with ebola victims which allowed for hundreds of cases to go undetected. The World Health Organization debated whether or not to declare an international health emergency which would have acted as a global distress signal, enacting the aid and preparation for a counter attack from many of the worlds most industrialized nations (e.g. the U.S., Canada, Japan etc.). Officials worried that declaring a global emergency would create panic which would only help exacerbate the issue as many countries, particularly in Europe and the Middle East, could potentially close their borders in an effort to ensure the ebola virus remained exclusively in Africa, the worlds most impoverished continent. To exacerbate the already fevered tensions between government officials, healthcare workers, and the public at large, an event transpired which threw much of the West African population into a panic. In Kenema, Sierra Leone, a woman purporting herself as a nurse, began shouting in the center of the cities most populated marketplace, “there is no ebola! I say to everyone it’s not real. Ebola is not real. It’s cannibalism”. The crowd started to cry for others to come over, to hear the supposed confessions of a nurse stating that physicians are killing innocent people for the consumption of their bodies as meat. The tide quickly changed and the crowd began turning upon the healthcare staff present, throwing stones, giving chase, and threatening their lives, forcing the evacuation of virtually all physicians, nurses, and other interdisciplinary healthcare personnel. This woman was not a nurse, rather she was a person afflicted with mental illness, but her impact greatly exacerbated an already uneasy hoard of people, so much in fact that law enforcement were forced to attend and disperse tear gas to control the ire of the group. By this point, the ebola outbreak had claimed more than 800 people across 3 countries. Physicians urged the World Health Organization to declare an international emergency however organization officials refused to do so because it was believed that this act would only add fuel to an already raging and seemingly out of control inferno of illness and chaotic unrest. It was at this point that the ebola outbreak rose to a new level when an infected Liberian traveled to Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, and the U.S., forcing the World Health Organization to declare an international emergency, by holding a press conference given by Dr. Margaret Chan, the Director-General of the organization itself. A high ranking team was assembled and deployed to Geneva, Switzerland in response, devising and enacting a plan to employ thousands of western medical professionals in an attempt to curb an infectious outbreak which was growing by this point at an exponential rate. The outbreak was so beyond the reach of control by this time that it had spread across a broad geographical area, unlike anything ever witnessed in modern memory. The main caveat to the curated plan was that the World Health Organization did not have a standing force of physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, and other various healthcare practitioners, ready and willing to help serve in the fight to combat such a prevalent contagion, nor did they have the budget to build one. The only option available was to appeal to the worlds wealthiest nations, persuading and to an extent pleading with trained and qualified healthcare workers who were willing and able to travel abroad and join the collective effort. This endeavor would take time as acquiring a team en mass is an extraordinarily ambitious goal to accomplish. Rioting continued to occur with some hospitals being overrun by disillusioned citizens who were angry, frightened, and frustrated enough to allow every patient under quarantine to run back into the village, allowing for the proliferation of the disease to spread even further. Governments attempted to respond by sending in military squadrons to guard sanctioned quarantined buildings in an effort to help contain an outbreak which for all intents and purposes was completely out of control and continuing to spiral into calamity. Citizens were killed both by soldiers with firearms as well as infection as those who were infected were in the streets, amongst the general populous. Doctors Without Borders began constructing ELWA 3 (pronounced “ell-wah-three”), the largest Ebola treatment center ever built, but despite their best efforts, the facility was not large enough to contain the sheer volume of people who needed medical aide. It was at this point that Doctors Without Borders made an urgent plea directed solely towards the U.S to provide thousands of soldiers immediately in order to help isolate and treat patients. Dr. Tom Frieden, Director of the Center of Disease Control, traveled to the ELWA 3 clinic in Monrovia, Liberia to see first hand, just how bad the epidemic was. Frieden recounted his experience by stating that he witnessed a “level of devastation that I have never seen” and that he was “seeing a country essentially in free fall and knowing, knowing with certainty that no matter what we did, it was going to get a lot worse before it got better”. Frieden called then President Barack Obama stating that the outbreak was expanding at an exponential pace, doubling every 3 weeks, resulting in a tripling of results with every month of delay instituted. Obama responded by implementing emergency U.S. aide, sending thousands of soldiers and medics, 10 months after the outbreak had initially begun, in an attempt to quell and eradicate the spread of this viral disease. Other industrialized nations soon followed suit and the United Nations created a new emergency mission for the World Health Organization and other related agencies to coordinate the response. Work began on the ground with the building of new treatment centers and training to teach those deployed how to properly bury affected victims. Despite these monumentous efforts, the ebola virus was still ahead of the response and threatened to spread beyond African borders. Shortly after this humanitarian response, cases in Monrovia began to sharply decline, but experts believed that the downward trajectory would bounce back in an even more dramatic resurgence as people were now staying home due to the events which had recently transpired across the African continent, allowing them to infect more people than if they had been under isolation. Fortunately, the drop in reported cases remained steadfast in its declination as Liberians stopped trying to nurse their sick and started burying the dead in an appropriate and safe manner. Liberians began to understand that the ebola virus was so drastically deadly that previous cultural customs had to be shelved for the time being so that the disease could be expunged and life could return to normal for those who had survived. Thousands more continued to die across West Africa, but the changed behavior of West Africans and the massive international response gradually turned the tide of the war

The Chinese Government’s Eradication, Extermination and Annihilation of the Islamic Uyghur Ethnicity

Uyghur-prison-facilityIt is estimated that the Chinese government is holding more than 1,000,000 (1 million) practitioners of Islam in detention camps, the largest incarceration of an ethnic group since World War II. Holding facilities used to house detainees utilize the latest, most advanced technology in development, technology which is actively being tested to better control human beings. Chinese technology has advanced to the point that words spoken over telephone conversations can trigger surveillance so those with families inside detention centers often talk using coded language when using any type of telecommunications device. In 2009, thousands of Chinese Uyghur’s (pronounced “wee-gurr”) rioted in China’s Xinjiang province, the primary location of most Chinese Uyghur people. This riot was caused after a peaceful protest had gone awry due to law enforcement suppression, with the protests originally being conducted because of 2 Uyghur practitioners who were killed by the Chinese state. Almost 200 people, mainly Han Chinese were killed in this conflict. In the aftermath of this event, in an attempt to suppress any further activity, an unknown number of Uyghur were murdered and thousands imprisoned. President Xi Jinping appointed Chen Quanguo (pronounced “Chen Chang-gu-woa”), a strong arm tactical leader who had earned a reputation as an enforcer after pacifying Tibet. Quanguo elevated security in Xinjing against the Uyghur people, to suppress any future insurrection. Xi’s government decided that Xinjing’s 13,000,000 (13 million) Muslims would be treated as potential terrorists despite evidence which explicitly states that an extremely small minority of Uyghur people identify with the ideology of insurgency, separatism, and militancy. China has developed a ranking system which consists of 100 points, denoting somebody as a safe person. 10 points are deducted for each category which applies to an individual (e.g. identifying as Uyghur, being between the ages of 15 – 55, having knowledge of Islam, engaging in regular prayer, relatives living abroad, holding an active passport etc.). The Chinese government soon realized that the number of people who would be deemed unsafe in reference to this new system was quite large which is why enormous holding camps were developed upon an industrial scale. The Chinese government initially denied the existence of these facilities but satellite imagery clearly and definitively prove their construction and use. It is believed by western intelligence that there are now up to 1200 camps in operation. Facilities are highly regulated with moveable cameras in each dormitory and classroom, and detainees are permitted no more than 2 minutes in the bathroom before running the risk of being struck in the head with a electric baton prod. There have been accounts by detainees of other prisoners who were treated so poorly that their mental health began to decline into madness. The scale of this operation has caused some children to lose both parents which is why specialized orphanages have been setup to take care of children left behind by their incarcerated guardians. The Chinese government has recorded footage from within the camps to portray for the outside world the narrative that these facilities are nothing more than re-education centers. In reality, these highly polished videos have more in common with tourism advertisements than they do with journalism as the facilities are depicted to be much better than they actually are in terms of treatment of those imprisoned and the conditions presented to them. A large majority of Han Chinese are in favor of these facilities as racial bias, prejudice, and Islamaphobia is commonplace against the Uyghur ethnicity in China. Many Han believe the propaganda which has been fed to them, leading them to believe that the Uyghur people are of a lower intelligence quotient than Han Chinese and that they are incapable of doing anything outside of agrarian tasks like herding sheep. Detainees are actively being experimented upon to develop technologies which will forever change the modern world in respect to surveillance. The Chinese government has employed a tiered process for surveillance of the Uyghur people which begins with video surveillance setup outside of the home and ramping up to having flagged identification so that whenever law enforcement or checkpoints are present, a person is stopped and questioned, possibly being detained. All intelligence information is fed into a central system referred to as the “Public Security Database”. All Uyghur people have been instructed by the government to visit local police precincts to submit forensic data regarding themselves including vocal samples of ones voice which provides a unique voice signature, three dimensional facial scans, fingerprints, blood samples, and even deoxyribonucleic acid samples. The Chinese government is running specialized programs in Xinjing entitled “Homestay” and “Becoming Family” which sends uninvited Han Chinese workers into the homes of Uyghur people with the official statement stating that these programs are designed to promote national unity and harmony. The visitors sent out are described by authorities as “relatives” of the Uyghur people, but in reality, these people act as agents of the state, collecting, recording, and submitting intelligence via surveillance at an intimate and personal level which is inside of the home. Each person being monitored is provided a biographical profile so that the Chinese government understands how large or little a threat a person truly is. Many Uyghur households are individually marked with quick response barcodes, often referred to as “QR codes”, the same kind used on social media to photograph and pull up information instantly. Law enforcement frequent homes with quick response codes marked on the front door of a home upon a regular basis to scan it and ensure that only those who are registered for the home are present within it. Smartphones are examined at the various law enforcement outposts setup across the province to ensure the public is complying with the rules and regulations setforth by the state. Anyone caught violating any of these rules is subject to immediate arrest and detention with many examples of people being imprisoned for innocuous offenses (e.g. 12 months of incarceration for installing WhatsApp upon a smartphone). In addition to this, all Uyghurs are required to instal a Chinese government app which monitors their devices for suspicious activity. This level of intrusiveness is unprecedented in the modern world, as no country other than China employs such aggressive measures to surveillance it’s people. Xinjing has been labeled by experts to be the most tightly controlled and regulated region in the world, a surveillance state which surpasses all others, teetering upon the borderline of science fiction in terms of the Chinese governments reach, breadth, and depth of intelligence. The Chinese company Leon is helping to build the infrastructure needed to create a seemingly impregnable surveillance state, developing technologies and strategies which most likely will be rolled out across China and into other countries which want to adopt and license the technology from China, which provides a dual benefit effect as the Chinese government then owns the worlds best surveillance systems to surveil its own people as well as the ability to sell these technologies to the highest bidding countries and organizations, providing an economic incentive for China to continue developing and pushing the boundaries of what is possible with this bleeding edge technology. It should be noted that Leon is only one of many companies working with and for the Chinese state to develop surveillance technologies. Foreign nations outside of China have done little to protest the development and implementation of these technologies in an concerted effort to ensure economic relationships with China remain un-jeopardized. Measures to eradicate the Uyghur people and culture to the point of annihilation have recently been increased with physical, visual evidence recorded of bulldozers demolishing traditional Uyghur housing in Kashgar, China as part of the Communist Parties housing modernization and development program. Satellite imagery definitely demonstrates that symbolic destruction is occurring in tandem with the domes and minarets of mosques being dismantled and removed from at least 2 dozen Islamic religious sites as of 2019. The Chinese government emphatically states that human rights are not violated in re-education centers and that cruelty is strictly prohibited with detainees free to apply for consent to leave at any time. These claims however have not been verified and evidence to the contrary has been overwhelmingly collected and distributed by western media organizations. The Chinese government is heavily focusing upon indoctrinating the current generation of young Uyghur children, forbidding the usage of indigenous language and cultural practices in an effort to assimilate young Uyghur children into becoming Chinese citizens identical to the Han Chinese which is the predominant ethnicity of China, comprising 92% of the total population, a figure which means that 19% of the worlds total population identify as Han

John Edgar Hoover’s Leverage of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Regarding Matters Outside of the Agencies Original Intent

John-Edgar-HooverJohn Edgar Hoover, the original head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation leveraged his power and the organization itself as a political police force which targeted anyone who Hoover felt was off message and out of line with what the United States of America’s political climate was during that particular period. Anyone who was suspected of being misaligned with the then current presidential administration was subject to probe. Figures who were perceived to have challenged the U.S. government and its institutions without the use of hostility includes such notable figures as Albert Einstein, Martin Luther King Jr., and John Lennon

Chinese Business Practices Designed to Stimulate the Planned Economic Growth of China

Chinese-U.S.-business-deal

The Chinese government have started a policy referred to as “forced technology transfer” which means that “in order to do business in China, foreign business interests must give up some of their technological innovations and protected secrets”. The Chinese government refers to this process as an “indigenous innovation policy”, to ensure that Chinese companies, state owned or otherwise, remain or become the most powerful and influential industry leaders within various world economic sectors. The short version of this policy is that if a foreign company wants to work with a Chinese corporation or do business in China (e.g. selling U.S. made products in China), they must agree to do so through joint ventures with Chinese firms, and allow propitiatory technology to be shared with Chinese corporate interests and the Chinese government to encourage growth within Chinese industry as a whole. The World Trade Organization has laid out rules stating that this practice is inconsistent with what it deems fair and legal business practice, however the Chinese government has repeatedly ignored requests for these practices to halt. The Chinese state has issued statements claiming that there are no official laws in place forcing foreign companies to comply with such practices, however this is evidently untrue as multiple U.S. corporations have provided evidence to the contrary

The National Security System of Dubai

Dubai

Dubai has one of the most sophisticated surveillance states in the world. It is incredibly difficult to bypass Dubai intelligence, which Dubai promotes as a positive aspect of its government. The Arab Spring of 2011 gave way to multiple riots and protests across the Middle East which is why monitoring and security have become especially tight within the past decade. Social media and smartphones played a pivotal role in the uprising of the public across the Islamic world which is why Dubai has stepped up its surveillance measures. Dubai’s surveillance system is an ecosystem entitled “Falcon Eye”, a nod to the importance of falconry within Arab culture, a sophisticated network with software which tracks the movement of a person from the moment they leave their home until the moment they return. Camera surveillance is not the only method used however as the Dubai government has openly admitted to the tracking and monitoring of smartphones as well as to sending state agents to follow individuals like journalists via motorized vehicle and upon foot when a person is deemed to possibly cause a threat to the states national security. The reason this activity is not hidden from the public is because the Dubai government wants citizens and foreigners to know that they actively engage in the monitoring of what people do when within its borders. Dubai started spending millions of dollars in 2011 on state of the art Israeli spyware which had the ability to infect smartphones and turn them into portable surveillance devices as they are almost always with the person who is being spied upon. In the past decade, as of 2019, the United Arab Emirates has made strides in opening up communication and relationships with law enforcement and governments located near the Indian Ocean. This allows the reach of the Dubai government to effectively be international, much the same way that the U.S. has international diplomatic links with many other democracies around the world

The U.S.’ Attempt to Combat Fraudulent Currency in 1996

U.S.-currency

It’s estimated that as much as $220,000,000 ($220 million) in counterfeit currency is circulating in the United States of America at any given time. In an effort to combat those who produce counterfeit currency, the U.S. government introduced a new form of $100.00 bills in 1996. This new currency featured the most sophisticated security features in the world including a security strip running down the left hand side of Benjamin Franklin’s portrait which is activated by ultraviolet light causing the strip to turn pink, a watermark in which Franklin’s face appears on the right hand side of the bill when held up to light, color shifting technology which changed the color of the “100” text at the bottom right hand corner of the bill which shifts from green to black when tilted, microprinting of the “100” text at the bottom left hand corner which states “USA100” and on the left hand side of Franklin’s lapel which states “The United States of America”

The Dreadful Conditions Imposed Upon North Korean’s Who Work Abroad

North-Korean-money

Many North Koreans decide to work abroad but foreign work programs do not work the same way in North Korea as they do in the western world. Workers go abroad to places which will take them, with Russia and China being the primary location to migrate, and then work in industries which require cheap labor, typically in construction or factory work. Workers are forced to pay a mandatory fee to the North Korean state as crippling sanctions by the United Nations has hobbled North Korea’s ability to advance its nuclear program(s). This fee is referred to as “party duty” and is typically $300.00 – $900.00 per month which is why many workers end up giving up and returning home, often in debt. Workers are paid in a form of food stamps as all financial pay goes to the team leaders of the band of workers. These leaders arrange for part of the money to be paid to the worker, part of the money to be kept for themselves, and part of the money to be paid to the North Korean government. Workers have reported earning as little as 7% of their gross income after the immense fees which were imposed upon them. Many workers work during the day at their primary job, and then again during the night with private construction jobs which they acquire most often by bribing their team leader. The night construction jobs pay much better than the state sanctioned jobs because doing so is completely “off the books” meaning that no taxes or fees are imposed allowing workers to keep the entire payment for themselves and their families. These migrant workers are often referred to as “dollar heroes” within North Korean culture and there are approximately 40,000 of these types of workers in Russia alone. At its core, this system is essentially forced labor which is equitable to slavery. The North Korean state is dependent upon this system as many of its legitimate exports are now blocked from world trade making income generation substantially more difficult. The demand for North Korean labor is intense because Chinese laborers now earn enough that their wages are no longer competitive with North Korea. The Chinese government often sets up conventions which function as career fairs, placing perspective employers in touch with those looking for work. These work fairs are established so that North Korean workers can be brought to China to help meet the demand of laborers needed to build new projects, primarily in construction. North Korea has put laws in place so that employers and employees can never directly exchange payment for services rendered. Any employee demanding payment is dismissed and sent back to North Korea. Workers are closely guarded and watched by North Korean managers who report back anything suspicious to the North Korean government. China is North Korea’s most important trading partner and it is estimated that in China alone, North Korean workers earn hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Before workers are allowed to go abroad, they must pass an ideological examination which is essentially a background check of ones family. Workers are required to have 1 spouse and 1 child in North Korea before migrating for work so that those who go abroad cannot engage in rogue activities. The North Korean government leverages these families left behind to manipulate workers into complying with the harsh system setup abroad, as many are unaware just how bad conditions are until they arrive to their worksite for the first time. The United Nations estimates that North Korean workers earn over $1,000,000,000 ($1 billion) annually for the North Korean state. Reports indicate that there are approximately 150,000 North Korean workers working abroad in total with 100,000 in China, 40,000 in Russia, and the remaining 10,000 working in Africa, Cambodia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Myanmar, and Poland. The United Nations has predicted that because western sanctions have put such immense pressure upon North Korea and its future financial growth, Kim Jong Un, North Korea’s leader whose technical title is the “Chairman of the Workers Party”, will be looking to increase the number of workers North Korea sends abroad as well as ratchet up the pressure placed upon these workers to generate even more foreign exchange income. Because of the insatiable drive to fulfill ever lower wages, it seems the rest of the industrialized world is complicit in helping North Korea’s Supreme Leader fulfill his ambition