Preservation​ of Organic Material in The Black Sea

Black-Sea

The Black Sea off of the coast of the Ukraine is unique in that it has a dense layer of stagnant, oxygen deprived water which blankets its lower depths referred to as the “anoxic layer”. This layer has preserved shipwrecks perfectly, and is thought to preserve human remains as well, although none have been found. Anything organic which should rot away like wood, leather, cotton etc. stays completely intact for thousands of years under these conditions. It is theorized that 7500 years ago, the Black Sea was a landlocked, freshwater lake which crossed over a thin strip of land referred to as the “Bosphorus”, as the world’s oceans began to swell due to melting glaciers. This caused seawater to flood into the Black Sea and because it was more dense than the freshwater already there, it sank it to bottom and settled. The saltwater was cut off from the oxygen supply which it would normally receive from ocean currents. The anoxic layer is approximately 183 meters deep and produces hydrogen sulfide as a byproduct which is poisonous to most living creatures including those which consume and break down ships

The Colossal Nomura Jellyfish

nomura-jellyfish

Nomura jellyfish are colossal in size, weighing up to 450 lbs. and measuring 12’ in circumference. Nomura jellyfish directly follow and stalk their prey just as box jellyfish do, with a single Nomura jellyfish able to consume an entire Olympic swimming pool sized body of water filled with zooplankton within 24 hours. When both male and female Nomura jellyfish are attacked, both instantly release all of their sperm and eggs, producing and scattering millions of possible future offspring. This is why despite being killed in the hundreds and thousands by fisheries on the open seas, Nomura jellyfish continue to thrive and dominate much of the ocean. Currently, it is unclear to scientists where Nomura jellyfish originate from

The Commonality Between Herbivores and Size

elephant-herbivore

The largest land animals on Earth today are all herbivores, but this was also true during the age of the dinosaurs. In descending order, the 5 largest living herbivores are the African elephant, the African bush elephant, the Asian elephant, the white rhinoceros, and the hippopotamus. The only living animals which are larger in size than these creatures are whales. Whales are not herbivores, but being a herbivore within the ocean is actually quite uncommon. The only reason whales are able to become larger than the largest land-dwelling mammals is because of the way that the ocean displaces gravity, therefore providing resistance to the pull which would under normal circumstances cause whales to collapse under their own weight. The primary reason the largest land animals are herbivores is because of food resources. There are a staggering amount of plant resources made abundant for herbivores in comparison to the relatively small amount of protein rich resources available to carnivores. Plant resources are also quickly renewable unlike protein resources. Herbivores are apt to survive predation as they increase in size whilst carnivores actually become hindered as they increase in size due to the fact that they become slower and less agile making their ability to catch prey severely reduced

The Early Formation of Earth 

early-Earth

During the early days of the solar system, dozens of planets orbited the sun. It is thought that these planets collided and with this collision came intense heat which melted and welded rocks and minerals together. It is theorized that Mercury was only hit once hence it’s small size, Mars not at all, Venus 8x, and Earth 10x primarily because Earth it is the largest of the rocky planets. The last impact towards Earth is thought to have occurred 4,500,000,000 (4.5 billion) years ago which gave Earth its iron core; the lighter debris floated back above Earth and rotated around it which gave Earth rings similar to Saturn. Scientists now know that Earth was hit by rocks which came from Mars. It is thought that primitive microbial life would be able to withstand the journey from Mars to Earth. Earth had enough gravity to hold its oceans which allowed for constant changes in weather. It is thought that life began on Earth 4,300,000,000 (4.3 billion) years ago and that life became sophisticated 2,800,000,000 (2.8 billion) years ago. Despite the Earth being hit 6x catastrophically which was once thought to have sterilized all life, primitive life forms lay dormant in suspended animation within the salt rock which was produced from the immense heat during each catastrophic event. The microbes lay waiting until conditions became more favorable at which time they started reproducing and thriving. Scientists tested this first hand by drilling into salt rock which was created during a catastrophic event to release 200,000,000 (200 million) year old sea water which held tiny microbes called asilospermians which were reanimated when left within a nutrient rich solution for 4 months

Shipping Freighters Flying Flags of Convenience 

shipping-freighter-flag-of-convenience

The flags flown atop ships are also known as a “flag of convenience” as the owners of shipping companies and shipping vessels often fly a flag different from that of their own nationality or where their business is headquartered. Nations have 19 kilometers of territorial water which is considered part of their land, 322 kilometers of an exclusive economic zone in which countries can pull in ships for inspection and seize their goods or extract resources from the sea bed, and the high seas which belong to nobody. Ships are subject to the laws of the country of the flag they fly however most Greek, Japanese, Chinese, and German ships are registered in Panama, Liberia, the Marshall Islands, or Mongolia, slipping away from the laws of their country of origin, a move which can be very financially rewarding. Doing so allows companies to dodge taxes, safety standards and requirements, labor codes, and minimum wages. This method can reduce shipping costs by up to 65%. Countries promote the efficacy of flying their flag at large gatherings in an attempt to entice large shipping magnets into utilizing their flag which is a mutually beneficial endeavor as the country on the flag gets to collect taxes for its development and the company using the flag gets to save a lot of money, funds which would have been paid out in higher tax brackets had they used the flag of a wealthier nation. On top of all of these perks, most flags of convenience guarantee anonymity to their clients which helps ensure the entire industry is difficult to track and regulate

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

ocean-wave

The process of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion is a process by which warm surface sea water which is 26 degrees Celsius, is pumped through a heat exchange to vaporize low boiling point fluids like ammonia which then turns a turbine, after which the ammonia is cooled by deep sea water which is 5 degrees Celsius and returned back into a liquid state. This cycle can be performed again and again with the same water being utilized each time and produces a byproduct of hydrogen which can be used for rocket fuel and to create hydrogen fuel cells. Perhaps the most attractive aspect of this technology is that the only lasting byproduct produced is sea water, which is completely harmless to the environment. The infrastructure for this technology is already available due to the various corporations who pump oil out of the ocean floor using oil rigs. The problem with this technology however is that the United States government is intertwined with the oil industry as a whole and therefore separation of the two entities would be a difficult endeavour to achieve. Europe and China have already adopted trials of this technology because they do not have the same allegiance and ties to oil