U.S. Patent Office Requirements During the 19th Century

U.S.-patent-officeBetween 1790 and 1880, all United States patents required a working model of the idea proposed prior to being patented. This requirement was phased out by the U.S. Congress in 1870, but the U.S. Patent Office continued to stipulate it as a requirement until 1880. The reason for the abolishment of this stipulation was that creating working prototypes was an expensive process and it was often difficult to find a tradesperson who could create the parts needed. This inconvenience slowed down the ability of inventors to acquire patents so that their product could be sold upon the open market. It was eventually agreed by the U.S. Congress as well as the U.S. Patent Office that this laborious process held up the release of inventions which could potentially make life easier for everybody and was therefore repealed

Invention of the Kaleidoscope


The kaleidoscope was invented in 1816 by Sir David Brewster who was a Scottish mathematician and physicist noted for his various contributions to the field of optics. Brewster patented his invention in 1817 but thousands of unauthorized reproductions were constructed and sold, resulting in Brewster receiving little financial benefit from his invention. Brewster named the kaleidoscope as he did because of the Greek term “kalos” which means “beautiful”, “eidos” which means “form”, and “scopos” which means “watcher”