The Evolution of Primitive and Sophisticated Neural Networks

neural-network

The human brain has 100,000,000,000,000 (100 trillion) connections and 86,000,000,000 (86 billion) neurons, which is more connections and neurons than there are stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. Ironically, the majority of the most successful creatures on Earth do not have a brain; organisms like plants, coral, and jellyfish. The sea squirt is a primary example as it has just 200 neurons, allowing it only to perceive and display simple interaction with the environment by sensing light and moving its flagellum. The sea squirt moves around until it finds a rock, then it dumps its tail and uses those once dedicated neurons for different applications, staying anchored to this spot for the rest of its life. Neurons were originally designed to allow for simple motion and movement, but as evolution progressed steadily, neural networks began to build and design intelligent life which is capable of consciousness and a sense of self but also more abstract concepts like art, mathematics, and science

The Reason Why Underground Caves Naturally Form

cave

Cave systems form when acidic water etches its way through rock. Rainwater becomes acidic as it takes in carbon dioxide and groundwater can become acidic due to the acids found in nearby soil. Water causes existing cracks within the rock to widen into passages which the water flows through to create even wider channels. Over time caverns begin to form as the rock weakens and falls

The Revolutionary Iron Age Technology of the Rotary Quern

rotary-quern

During the Iron Age, grain was milled by rubbing a smaller rock against a larger rock with the grain in between the discs. This was back breaking labor which is evidenced by the injuries found upon skeletal remains of ancient people. A quantum leap forward however emerged as the rotary quern, a composite tool comprised of a stone base with a wooden pole or dowel in the center, and a movable rotating top donut shaped piece which was also made of stone, but with a handle so that it could be turned. Grain was placed into the middle of the tool and because the tool was slanted upon a 45 degree angle, gravity would pull grain down. This allowed for a single person to mill much more grain than what would have traditionally been possible using antiquated Stone Age technology. This new design freed up both time spent working as well as the amount of people required to meet a specific quota (e.g. 150 – 200 grams per person per day). Because more people could be better fed, with less effort and resources, the population of those with access to the technology in Britain expanded quickly which occurred around 400 B.C.

The Ancient City of Cappadocia in Modern Day Derinkuyu, Turkey

cappadocia-turkey

The underground cave site of Derinkuyu, Turkey, commonly referred to as “Cappadocia”, is an underground network of caves and tunnels which date back to the prehistoric era, as evidence of stone tools have been uncovered at the site. Experts believe that 20,000 – 60,000 people inhabited the Cappadocian caves with indication of air vents and water wells making it theoretically possible to live underground for extended periods of time, spanning years even. Stone wheels made of volcanic basalt were fashioned to create what’s referred to as “self sealing doors”. The rocks would be rolled in front of a pathway making entry impossible for invaders due to the inability to gain leverage. The only possibility of entry would be to cut through this wheel, often up to 1’ thick in width, which would waste valuable time giving those upon the other side time to prepare a counter attack

The Tragic and Untimely Sinking of the Titanic

Titanic

After hitting an iceberg during its maiden voyage, the Titanic stayed afloat for less than 3 hours. Rivets used in the manufacturing process which were also used for many of the United States’ modern megastructures, were fit using a technique in which the rivet is heated and then hammered through a hole subsequently cooling and contracting, which pulled together the pieces of anything it was attached to. As the rivets of the Titanic popped out after impact, it allowed for a zipper like opening of the ship which conceded water to flush inward. Modern ships do not use rivets for this very reason and instead opt for welded hulls. It is impossible to build a ship which can withstand either an iceberg or a rock edifice with both being found below the surface of the ocean quite frequently. The only resolution is to use Radio Detection and Ranging or Radio Direction And Ranging (RADAR) and a global positioning system to steer clear of these hazards. Modern oil tankers have double hulls which reach right upside the entire ship but modern commercial ships normally do not bring their doubled hulls this high as it is an expensive safety feature which is bypassed as commercial ships do not carry oil which is financially and environmentally costly when spilled, alongside the fact that double hulled ships take up valuable space which could otherwise be used for cargo transportation. Instead commercial and industrial ships invest resources into safety systems better equipped for the needs of the people and/or goods which they transport

Clovis Point

Clovis-Point

The Clovis Point which is named after the site at which it was first discovered in New Mexico, United States of America, is the most well recognized and most frequently found spearhead left behind by early Homo sapiens. Clovis Points are found throughout North America which definitively demonstrates the existence of trade as far back as 10,000 years ago. The Clovis Point spear tip is a symmetrical fluted shape with sharp edged profiles on both sides. Flint rock was often used as it was easily acquired and readily shaped, but Chert was the most common rock used. Chert was used because it breaks with a razor sharp edge if struck properly with a piece of bone or rock