Robert Goddard’s Liquid Fueled Rocket Concept


Robert Goddard devised the idea of liquid kerosene and liquid oxygen being mixed together to create a fierce, but most importantly, a controllable flame for propulsion. When kerosine reacts with oxygen, the result is an incredibly hot, rapidly expanding gas which when channeled through a nozzle, creates enormous thrust. On March 16, 1926, Goddard launched the world’s first liquid fuel rocket bearing this concept. This rocket did not travel fast nor far but it did demonstrate a proof of concept making space flight theoretically possible for the first time in human history

Re-useable Rockets for Space Exploration


Rockets are traditionally not re-used unlike aviation aircraft because making a landing from space means that a craft must come back to Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of 8 kilometers per second, a much more difficult task than that of landing a commercial aircraft at a cruising speed of just over 800’ per second

Nazi German V2 Rocket Production During World War II 


The V2 rocket was one of the most expensive pieces of weaponry utilized during World War II. The V2 rocket was manufactured under slave labor conditions and although it was successful in its ability to kill 5000 people during its various attacks, 10,000 – 20,000 people died during its production as miscalculations and errors often occurred during the various manufacturing and testing processes. The V2 rocket was primarily built by Russian, Polish, Ukrainian, and French prisoners of war. Overworking, underfeeding, and not providing sanitation caused many deaths to these slave laborers which hindered the ability to produce the unrealistic quota demands Adolf Hitler had requested of the German military. For each V2 rocket which was produced, 6 slave laborers died. Wernher von Braun performed many calculations for the German military in terms of the amount of concentration camp slave laborers required to meet demand quotas as well as how many people were expected to die during each production run. Prisoners were often hung publicly within the labor camps as punishment for resistance or sabotage of the project

Challenger Spacecraft


The reason the Challenger space craft exploded 73 seconds into its launch on January 28, 1986 was because the temperature the morning of the launch was -1 degrees Celsius which caused the o-rings placed around the rocket’s boosters to shrink and leak fuel upon liftoff. This theory was brought to light by Valentina Tereshkova, who was the first woman in space. Tereshkova relayed her theory to one of the heads of staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration who then relayed it to Richard Feynman by showing him how vehicle carburetors which also have o-rings experience the same issue. If the ambient temperature is below 11 degrees Celsius this issue is a common occurrence with all o-rings, regardless of the vehicle or craft it is installed upon