The Advent of Colorism During Slavery in the U.S.

U.S.-slavery

During the period of slavery in the U.S., slave owners would segregate their slaves into separate groups consisting of dark skin slaves and light skin slaves. Darker skinned slaves would be forced to work in the fields whilst lighter skinned slaves would be required to work within the home. Racism which involves discrimination based upon the shade or hue of skin tone is referred to as “colorism” and is often perpetrated by people of the same race, but with different completions. Colorism often occurred throughout the U.S.’ long and complicated history with slavery, and continues to occur within modern day families as well, as many American. families have different skin tones among the various children born into it because of different genetic variations in both parents genealogical history

The Legality of Indian Child Labor

Indian-child-labor

India has the highest amount of children who work of any country in the world. Thousands of children are trafficked into domestic slavery each year in India but due to India’s vast population of 1,300,000,000 (1.3 billion) people, these children go largely unnoticed. In India, every hour, 8 children are trafficked however 5 of these children are never found after having gone missing. Traffickers are paid 5000 – 6000 Indian Rupees ($95.00 – $110.00) per child. Indian society seems to permiss children working and it is deeply ingrained within society as it is viewed as poor children working because their families cannot afford to send them to attend an educational institution. It is viewed as better to work than to do nothing at all. It’s ironic because a buffalo will sell for 200,000 Indian Rupees ($3700.00) but a young girl for 10,000 Indian Rupees ($185.00). The value of a human life does not seem to count for much as prices are set in terms of how much work a person or animal can perform before collapsing. Kailash Satyarthi, a man who has spent his life freeing children from slavery, his organization freeing close to 100,000 children in the last 3 decades as of 2018. Satyarthi who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 for his efforts to eradicate slavery states. Satyarthi often educates that there is a triangular relationship between poverty, child labor, and illiteracy with each forming a chicken and egg relationship with the other as each factor is a consequence of the other factors. When child labor is permitted, it allows child illiteracy and poverty to continue. Child labor is the largest factor preventing education and literacy for children around the world. This places children at an enormous disadvantage because they cannot become equal partners in the globalized economy. It’s not only the traffickers of organized crime who need to be suppressed. It is also the middle class families in large cities like Delhi who do not consider the consequences before hiring a young person to watch their children, clean their home, and cook their meals. Suppressing both of these ties to slavery will drastically help reduce the number of children who are trafficked each year. Law enforcement has been known to resort to medical examinations to provide an accurate age when documentation is unavailable or thought to be fraudulent. Indian law however clearly states that if a school certificate is used as proof of age, then no medical examination shall commence. This is used by traffickers as leverage to ensure that they’re never culpable for having a person below the age of 18 under their supervision

The Dreadful Conditions Imposed Upon North Korean’s Who Work Abroad

North-Korean-money

Many North Koreans decide to work abroad but foreign work programs do not work the same way in North Korea as they do in the western world. Workers go abroad to places which will take them, with Russia and China being the primary location to migrate, and then work in industries which require cheap labor, typically in construction or factory work. Workers are forced to pay a mandatory fee to the North Korean state as crippling sanctions by the United Nations has hobbled North Korea’s ability to advance its nuclear program(s). This fee is referred to as “party duty” and is typically $300.00 – $900.00 per month which is why many workers end up giving up and returning home, often in debt. Workers are paid in a form of food stamps as all financial pay goes to the team leaders of the band of workers. These leaders arrange for part of the money to be paid to the worker, part of the money to be kept for themselves, and part of the money to be paid to the North Korean government. Workers have reported earning as little as 7% of their gross income after the immense fees which were imposed upon them. Many workers work during the day at their primary job, and then again during the night with private construction jobs which they acquire most often by bribing their team leader. The night construction jobs pay much better than the state sanctioned jobs because doing so is completely “off the books” meaning that no taxes or fees are imposed allowing workers to keep the entire payment for themselves and their families. These migrant workers are often referred to as “dollar heroes” within North Korean culture and there are approximately 40,000 of these types of workers in Russia alone. At its core, this system is essentially forced labor which is equitable to slavery. The North Korean state is dependent upon this system as many of its legitimate exports are now blocked from world trade making income generation substantially more difficult. The demand for North Korean labor is intense because Chinese laborers now earn enough that their wages are no longer competitive with North Korea. The Chinese government often sets up conventions which function as career fairs, placing perspective employers in touch with those looking for work. These work fairs are established so that North Korean workers can be brought to China to help meet the demand of laborers needed to build new projects, primarily in construction. North Korea has put laws in place so that employers and employees can never directly exchange payment for services rendered. Any employee demanding payment is dismissed and sent back to North Korea. Workers are closely guarded and watched by North Korean managers who report back anything suspicious to the North Korean government. China is North Korea’s most important trading partner and it is estimated that in China alone, North Korean workers earn hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Before workers are allowed to go abroad, they must pass an ideological examination which is essentially a background check of ones family. Workers are required to have 1 spouse and 1 child in North Korea before migrating for work so that those who go abroad cannot engage in rogue activities. The North Korean government leverages these families left behind to manipulate workers into complying with the harsh system setup abroad, as many are unaware just how bad conditions are until they arrive to their worksite for the first time. The United Nations estimates that North Korean workers earn over $1,000,000,000 ($1 billion) annually for the North Korean state. Reports indicate that there are approximately 150,000 North Korean workers working abroad in total with 100,000 in China, 40,000 in Russia, and the remaining 10,000 working in Africa, Cambodia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Myanmar, and Poland. The United Nations has predicted that because western sanctions have put such immense pressure upon North Korea and its future financial growth, Kim Jong Un, North Korea’s leader whose technical title is the “Chairman of the Workers Party”, will be looking to increase the number of workers North Korea sends abroad as well as ratchet up the pressure placed upon these workers to generate even more foreign exchange income. Because of the insatiable drive to fulfill ever lower wages, it seems the rest of the industrialized world is complicit in helping North Korea’s Supreme Leader fulfill his ambition

Moroccan Slavery

Moroccan-salt.png

Slavery has not been abolished in Morocco and is technically still legal even during the modern day. Many people have parents, or grandparents who were born into slavery and have experienced slavery first hand. An estimated 13,000,000 (13 million) slaves were transported north across the Sahara Desert, a number similar in size to those who forced into slavery during the 18th and 19th century in the U.S.. In Morocco there are entire villages of people who descend from the lineage of slaves who were forced along the salt roads of West Africa

The Ancient Greek Ruler Draco and the Ancient Greek Reformer Solon 

ancient-Greek-law

Draconian laws which are associated with being especially unfair and cruel stem from the tyrant Draco who commissioned them in 621 B.C.. Draco forced farmers who couldn’t pay their debts into slavery and simple crimes like stealing a cabbage were punishable by death. The wise reformer Solon saved Athens by freeing all indebted slaves, eliminating the death penalty for all but extreme cases, and wrestling the political power out of the hands of noble bloodlines by establishing a council of 400 citizens to run the city, a bold step during its day, to untether governance from inheritance

Inhumane Treatment Towards Minor Immigrants Illegally Entering the United States of America 

undocumented-migrant-adolescent

Due to the fact that so many unaccompanied minors have flooded across the U.S. and Mexico border during the past few years, vetting of potential sponsors and/or family members willing to take child and teenage migrants has been drastically relaxed. Initially the federal government decided that the fingerprinting of those vetted would be abolished, however they soon dropped the requirement of the submission of original documents including birth certificates upon applying, and finally, the Federal Bureau of Investigation sanctioned background checks once required were no longer deemed necessary, essentially allowing any predatory figure or group to acquire access to minors of various ages for any number of illicit reasons. Although these minors were exposed to sexual predation and many other forms of inhumane and illegal treatment, most were and continue to be forced into peonage, financial servitude which is equitable to slavery and has been illegal in the U.S. since the abolishment of slavery in 1867. These minors commonly work in unskilled laborer positions in industrialized farming operations found across the U.S.

Abraham Lincoln Ending Slavery

Abraham-Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln very much wanted to end slavery in the United State of America but he was rational enough to assume that doing so would require more than simply becoming president and signing its abolishment into law. The American Civil War was not fought to end slavery. It was fought to stop the rebellion and secession of slave states from the United States of America. The Southern states wanted to secede from the Northern states because they understood that Lincoln was going to work to end slavery with or without their support, during his presidency. However, even after ending the long and arduous American Civil War, slavery still thrived in the Southern states. The 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, ultimately ended the practice of slavery and slave trading. As the American Civil War was waning and it became apparent that the Confederacy would indefinitely lose to the Northern states, Lincoln fought hard to have Congress pass the 13th Amendment, so that it would be added to the United States of America Constitution. He signed it into law after the American Civil War ended, and doing so effectively ended slavery in the United States of America on December 6, 1865. Incidentally, the 13th Amendment passed the Senate on April 8, 1864 but was not signed into official law being that it is now part of the United States of America Constitution until 1865