The Tragic and Untimely Sinking of the Titanic

Titanic

After hitting an iceberg during its maiden voyage, the Titanic stayed afloat for less than 3 hours. Rivets used in the manufacturing process which were also used for many of the United States’ modern megastructures, were fit using a technique in which the rivet is heated and then hammered through a hole subsequently cooling and contracting, which pulled together the pieces of anything it was attached to. As the rivets of the Titanic popped out after impact, it allowed for a zipper like opening of the ship which conceded water to flush inward. Modern ships do not use rivets for this very reason and instead opt for welded hulls. It is impossible to build a ship which can withstand either an iceberg or a rock edifice with both being found below the surface of the ocean quite frequently. The only resolution is to use Radio Detection and Ranging or Radio Direction And Ranging (RADAR) and a global positioning system to steer clear of these hazards. Modern oil tankers have double hulls which reach right upside the entire ship but modern commercial ships normally do not bring their doubled hulls this high as it is an expensive safety feature which is bypassed as commercial ships do not carry oil which is financially and environmentally costly when spilled, alongside the fact that double hulled ships take up valuable space which could otherwise be used for cargo transportation. Instead commercial and industrial ships invest resources into safety systems better equipped for the needs of the people and/or goods which they transport

Pablo Picasso’s Politically Charged Guernica Painting

Pablo-Picasso-Guernica

On April 26, 1937, Guernica, Spain was severely bombed due to civil conflict brought on by World War II. The Basque town of Guernica was openly hostile towards General Francisco Franco’s ideologies, and because of this, Franco unleashed a 3.5 hour bombing raid upon this defenseless city, with help from German allies. In total, 1650 people were killed, 900 injured, and most of the township was destroyed, an event which sparked international outrage. Pablo Picasso created a piece of artwork as sentiment towards anti-war and anti-violence entitled “Guernica”. Picasso understood that artwork and politics rarely go together hand in hand and so he created not a piece of aircraft and bombs but rather of horses and swords, as he was determined not to create artwork which could be used as propaganda in the future. The bull depicted within the painting is designed to represent Franco and his military powers and the suffering horses and weeping woman symbolize the people of Spain. Picasso’s Guernica work became a timeless masterpiece and a copy of it is on display at the United Nations world headquarters in New York City, United States of America. The Guernica painting was covered briefly with a veil during 2003 when U.S. General Colin Powell announced the United States’ decision to invade Iraq. The Guernica image was seen as incendiary commentary and therefore intolerable during this chaotic period. The Guernica painting has become a symbol of protest to violence, war, and military regimes, not just for every country in the world, but of the 20th century and beyond

Napoléon Bonaparte’s Erroneous Assumption of Civilization and His Campaign Into Egypt

Napoléon-Bonaparte

Prior to the development of the methods and tools used for scientific analysis, many Europeans regarded Egypt as the birthplace of civilization. This meant that Napoléon Bonaparte was free to invade Egypt because the French people viewed his campaign as a way of leading themselves back to the source of their roots. Bonaparte did not only bring soldiers, he also brought scholars who were tasked to observe and record the knowledge gained while in Egypt. This acquisition of knowledge made information about Egypt available to the public through books filled with illustrations and writing about Egyptian culture, its people, and its landmarks. Elements of Egyptian culture started to work their way into European culture and even reach out west as far as the new colonies of the United States of America, with examples like the pyramid on the back of U.S. currency and the obelisk shaped Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States of America. Bonaparte’s campaign was the most significant European foray into the Islamic world since the Crusades

The Cuban “Wet Foot Dry Foot” Policy

Cuban-migrant

The Cuban “Wet Foot Dry Foot policy” describes the fact that since 1995, any Cuban who reaches the United States of America will be accepted by the U.S. and therefore able to live and work in the U.S. as a landed immigrant with paperwork to bolster their legitimacy when finding work, applying for loans, and paying income tax. The goal of bringing one’s family to join them in the future is why many Cubans have taken on this monumental challenge of traveling from Cuba to the U.S. by boat, often overcrowded and handmade which has lead to many deaths by drowning. If caught by the Cuban authorities for trying to flee Cuba, migrants are repatriated and given a fine or jail time in Cuba. Barack Obama ended the Wet Foot Dry Foot policy as his last act in office as President of the United States of America in the hopes of improving diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Cuba

The Rise of the Electric and Gasoline Automobile to Combat Horse Manure

19th-century-city

In the late 19th century there were 200,000 horses in New York City, United States of America, producing over 400,000 tonnes of manure. Getting rid of this waste was directly what spawned the automobile, both the electric version and the gasoline. The fate of the electric car was sealed in 1908 when Henry Ford launched the Model T. The Model T was mass produced and undercut its cheapest competitor by 33%. Within 5 years of introduction, the automobile eliminated 90% of horses in New York City

Moroccan Slavery

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Slavery has not been abolished in Morocco and is technically still legal even during the modern day. Many people have parents, or grandparents who were born into slavery and have experienced slavery first hand. An estimated 13,000,000 (13 million) slaves were transported north across the Sahara Desert, a number similar in size to those who forced into slavery during the 18th and 19th century in the U.S.. In Morocco there are entire villages of people who descend from the lineage of slaves who were forced along the salt roads of West Africa