The First Civilization to Domesticate the Horse

The first images and reliefs carved of human beings riding horses or horse drawn chariots appear 1500 years after the Botai people in 2000 B.C., specifically in Egypt. Supplementary evidence of the Botai being the first horse herders does exist, including evidence of cooking and smoking large quantities of horse meat as well as possessing large deposits of horse dung and holes dug specifically for fence posts, which indicate the Botai kept horses within corrals. The Botai most likely kept corrals to have meat readily available on demand, eliminating the need to venture into the forest, to stalk and hunt a horse, then carry it back to a settlement. Perhaps the strongest evidence of horse domestication by the Botai is the keeping of horse milk, as it is highly unlikely that hunters consistently milked wild horses

The Etymology of the “Merry Christmas” Greeting

The greeting “Merry Christmas” was created in 1534 in London, England when it was written formally in a letter sent to King Henry VIII’s chief minister Thomas Cromwell from Bishop John Fisher. The letter states, “and thus our Lord God send you a mery [sic] Christmas, and a comfortable, to your heart’s desire” sent December 22, 1534

The First Person to Weigh the Atmosphere

Italian Jesuit Evangelista Torricelli was able to definitively prove that the atmosphere has a specific weight by designing an experiment in which a tube is filled with mercury and then placed into a dish of mercury. Torricelli disovered that when performing this experiment, half of the mercury runs down into the dish and the other half stays within the tubing. Until this point, it was believed impossible to create a negative or empty space as the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle once stated, “nature abhors a vacuum” believing that nature would forever fight against the creation of true and pure nothingness. This is the same reason that an object (e.g. plastic straw or an oil drum barrel etc.) crumbles when all of the air within is extracted. Torricelli was able to overcome this phenomena by using the exteme weight of mercury within a ridged glass tube. The level of mercury left within the tube was a measurement of the weight of the atmosphere, a balancing act between the weight of the mercury and the weight of air pressing down upon this mercury, balancing each other out like scales. Torricelli famously stated, “noi viviamo sommersi nel fondo d’un pelago d’aria” which means “we live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of air” in Italian, and his findings made scientists realize that air was a substance for the first time. Torricelli became the first person to invent the barometer because of his understanding of atmospheric pressure. Despite Aristotle being believed to be correct for millennia, Torricelli definitively proved that air does have weight

Gender Reassignment Surgery: Male to Female

The reason gender reassignment surgery is possible is because all human beings begin life with the same anatomy, with the ovaries starting from the gonadal ridge, becoming testicles if they drop and remaining as ovaries if they do not. In addition to this, the clitoris is effectively a short penis as both genitalia are physically and anatomically identical (e.g. nerve ending bundles, interior connection and placement, sexual function etc.). When male anatomy is transitioned into female anatomy, a reversal of embryology occurs. When a biological male transitions to become female, during surgery, the scrotal skin is excised after which it is opened to form the labia majora and labia minora, and part of it is utilized to line the new vaginal cavity. The testicles are removed in their entirety and the cliterous is formed using the head of the penis which allows the cliterous to function as it does upon the body of a biological female, with most patients able to orgasm post surgery once healed. The volume of erectile tissue is decreased as the penis is effectively folded over, but because the nerves and arteries remain attached, sensation remains. Once the cliterous is sutured into place, the vaginal tunnel is created which is the most difficult aspect of the entire surgical procedure. A space is created between the bladder and the rectum which is difficult as both structures contain significant blood supply and injury to these systems can cause major complications. A skin graft from the scrotum is then set in place onto a cylindrical mold and sutured around it once the cavity is produced so that it can be implanted. Hair follicles are obliterated as they will continue to grow internally if not removed which would cause further complications. The mold used is an approximation of the average male penis which allows surgeons to create a cavity large enough to allow for sexual intercourse if desired. Small cosmetic details are taken care of after which the patient is sutured and migrated out of the operating theater so that they can be left to rest and reawaken after the anesthesia administered wears off