Chernobyl, Ukraine Nuclear Meltdown


In 1986, the world’s worst nuclear accident occurred, when the Chernobyl nuclear reactor within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic exploded releasing 400x as much radiation as the nuclear weaponry which was dropped upon Hiroshima, Japan in 1945 towards the end of World War II. The most dangerous classification of radiation which can be emitted after a nuclear meltdown or detonation of a nuclear atomic bomb are gamma rays, which like x-rays are made up of high energy photons which can travel long distances. Most gamma rays pass straight through an observer, but not all do and these free particles cause fragmentation of deoxyribonucleic acid and damage at the cellular level which can ultimately lead to cancer and subsequently death

Chinese Silk


Historically recorded Chinese accounts by monastic Chinese scholars state that a handful of monks sent to China by the Roman emperor Justinian, smuggled silkworms out of China within the hollowed out shoots of bamboo canes and brought this cargo to Constantinople which is modern day Istanbul, Turkey so that the silk textile trade could be exported from China for the first time in recorded history. For over 2000 years Constantinople was considered the crossroads of the world, the nexus at which the west and east converged. Silk soon took off as one of the most in demand and profitable industries within Istanbul’s long and fascinating history. It should be noted that these accounts are thought by many scholars to be a work of fiction

Charles Darwin’s “Survival of the Fittest”


When Charles Darwin created the phrase “survival of the fittest”, he did so before the term “ecosystem” was commonly used within the English vernacular. Darwin originally intended to state that the species or organism which fit in best with its environment, would have the most probable chance of survival. It is a common misconception that Darwin was referring to physical attributes like strength, speed, and fight or flight endurance



The term “triage” is derived from the French term “trier” meaning “selection” and is suspected to have originated during the Napoleonic Wars from the work of Dominique-Jean Larrey. The term “triage” was used further during World War I by French doctors treating the battlefield wounded at aid stations behind the front. Those responsible for the removal of the wounded from a battlefield or their care afterwards would divide the victims into three categories with the first being those who are likely to live, regardless of the care they receive, the second being those who are unlikely to live, regardless of the care they receive, and the third being those for whom immediate care may have a drastic and/or positive difference in the final outcome of their ability to survive

Indonesian Islam


In Indonesia, during the 16th century (although various sources of contrasting Islamic documentation state Islamic traders brought Islam to Indonesia in the 8th century), Islam had mass appeal to the general population. Islam strictly forbade discrimination and idolation of any monarchy or royal bloodline, and gave the common people the same opportunity to ascend to paradise as their rulers did. Islam does not have an intermediary when dealing with divine power which further made the religion attractive to the native islanders. These values made Islam more liberating in comparison to Hinduism and Buddhism which were the dominant religions at the time. The most recent mass conversion to Islam was during the fall of communism in Indonesia in 1965. Massive and brutal murders of communist party members occurred in the late 1960s as the accepted convention at the time was that communists were atheists and atheists were therefore communists. The safest method to ensure survival during this turbulent time, especially for the indigenous Javanese who adhered to local indigenous religions, was to declare themselves Muslim so they would not be mistaken for communists and by default, atheists

World Population Growth


200 years ago, the world had approximately 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) people. Today there are more than 7,000,000,000 (7 billion) people worldwide. By the end of the century, it has been predicted that Earth will have approximately 10,000,000,000 (10 billion) people. The majority, but not all, of the world’s population increase is due to impoverished third world countries as the governments of these nations are not meeting the same standards of industrialized countries in terms of educating their populous regarding sexual activity and birth control as well as affording free or subsidized birth control interventions. It is estimated that the world will not exceed 12,000,000,000 (12 billion) people as many countries, both industrialized and non-industrialized are now declining in their birth rates, due to conscious efforts made by governments to educate the general public in respect to sexual health

Invention of the Kaleidoscope


The kaleidoscope was invented in 1816 by Sir David Brewster who was a Scottish mathematician and physicist noted for his various contributions to the field of optics. Brewster patented his invention in 1817 but thousands of unauthorized reproductions were constructed and sold, resulting in Brewster receiving little financial benefit from his invention. Brewster named the kaleidoscope as he did because of the Greek term “kalos” which means “beautiful”, “eidos” which means “form”, and “scopos” which means “watcher”