Quartz Veins Filled With Gold


The California gold rush during the 1840’s caused hundreds of thousands of people to engage in mass migration. After any gold laying upon the surface had been excavated, miners dug into the ground to continue in their search. Miners surveyed for quartz veins as quartz virtually always meant that gold was nearby. Most gold sinks into the Earth’s core with other heavy metals like iron but occasionally, some gold remains with lighter minerals like quartz which is why gold can often be found imbedded inside of quartz. The reason gold nestles in with quartz is because earthquakes cause natural fissures to occur which provide pathways for superheated water containing minerals. This mineral packed water then cools down and the minerals carried within the flooded cracks left from the fissures, crystallize

The First American To Drill For Oil


Edwin Drake was the first American to drill for oil. Drake struck oil in 1859 in Titusville, Pennsylvania, United States of America. Drake pioneered methods still used in the modern day such as using a guide pipe which is 12” in diameter to shield the drilling rig from the well collapsing as well as the use of barrels to store oil. Drake pioneered the method of using barrels because he had nothing else other than old whiskey barrels to store the oil he had acquired once it came pouring out of the ground

The Protoplanet Theia


The protoplanet which hit the Earth and created the moon is referred to as “Theia”. When Theia hit the Earth, it’s core fused with the Earth’s core sending enormous amounts of liquid rock into orbit. Because this liquid rock was in a magma like state, it was very easy for it to coalesce and from the moon. The collision changed Earth’s trajectory as a planet because metals like iron were released from the planets core, resetting Earth’s basic chemistry. Gasses like methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen, seeped into Earth’s atmosphere, gasses which were the building blocks of life. During the 1950’s, American chemist Stanley Miller carried out a classic experiment which included creating a cocktail of these gasses and simulating life on Earth by introducing electricity. What emerged was a film of brown slime, full of amino acids, the raw material of proteins, created by nothing but the very gasses already present on Earth. During the cooldown of the Earth after the collision, water vapor condensed to form oceans, oceans which were tidal by nature due to the moons gravitational pull. Chemicals found within the early oceans were aided by the moon as the moon pulled upon the Earth creating low tides which in turn were introduced to ultraviolet radiation from the sun as the sun’s heat evaporated the remaining water within those tidal pools. This constant wetting and drying of these tidal pools was the catalyst which created ribonucleic acid, complex molecules created by very simple materials under very simple conditions