Galileo Galilei Determining the Speed of Light


The speed of light was once thought to be infinite and able to travel over infinite distances instantaneously. The polymath Galileo Galilei thought this to be incorrect and had an assistant stand atop a hill 1 kilometer away whilst Galilei shone a lantern and had the assistant shine one back as soon as he recognized the opposing lantern being lit. Galilei posited that he could measure the reaction time and divide it by the distance between both parties. The experiment failed to work because a much greater distance would be required for success. During the 1670’s, the Danish astronomer Ole Roemer closely observed Jupiter and its moon Io. Roemer noticed that his predictions of where Io should be did not synchronize with its actual position and subsequently realized that because Jupiter and Earth are sometimes closer together, the travel time of light between each could take between 1 hour and 1 hour and 15 minutes. Due to this realization, Roemer was able to calculate that light coming from Jupiter’s moon Io traveled at approximately 300,000 meters per second. Today scientists can verify Roemer’s experiment by pulsing a laser beam towards mirrors left upon the moon by astronauts during the Apollo missions NASA launched in decades past to confirm that the speed of light is indeed 299,792,458 meters per second. The lasers scientists use act upon the same principal RADAR, SONAR, and LIDAR utilizes in that they all measure objects at a distance by pinging them to approximate how fast they are traveling, and how far away they are

Bose-Einstein Condensate


Bose-Einstein condensate

When atoms become extremely cold and reach absolute zero on the Kelvin scale they enter what’s referred to as a “Bose-Einstein Condensate” which is a state of matter that causes individual atoms to lose their individual properties thus leading them to mash together and act strangely in their behavioral properties. Atoms become so smeared that their waves start looking indistinguishable from incredibly hot and compressed atoms like the kind found inside the inner core of neutron stars, stars which are so dense that a single teaspoon would weigh 10,000,000,000 (10 billion) tonnes

Engineering Pipes For Liquid Flow


The most efficient way to utilize gravity to carry water across long distances is to use a 4 degree slope. Doing so allows water to flow through the pipeline unimpeded whilst allowing a steady flow of air into the pipe so as not to create pressure upon the joints of any bends. Anything above 4 degrees will cause an area of turbulence referred to as a “hydraulic jolt”

Rain Drops


Every time a raindrop hits a puddle or a drop of water hits a larger body of water, it bounces up and down, over and over, held together by its surface tension, and becoming smaller with each bounce, which creates the wave effect observed when a drop of water hits another larger body of water. This phenomena occurs too fast for the human eye to see, but high speed cameras can catch this effect by shooting at thousands or millions of frames per second 

The Dangers of Bright Light and Ultraviolet Light


Contrary to popular belief, bright light cannot harm your eyes. Ultraviolet can harm your eyes but ultraviolet cannot pass through glass, so staring at the sun or an atomic bomb which provides a ton of ultraviolet light is perfectly safe provided the observer is viewing the object through a glass panel (e.g. a car windshield). Richard Feynman used this knowledge to witness the first test of the atomic bomb in 1944, when no one else would dare to do so. Feynman viewed the detonation while sitting in his vehicle

Terraforming Mars


In order to terraform Mars, scientists have theorized that by blasting the polar ice caps on the north and south poles of the planet with lasers, the ice could be melted, turned into water, and used to grow vegetation. Terraforming has been successfully performed in the past, as 1600 kilometers off the coast of Africa is Ascension Island, a place in which nothing grew or lived (as far as scientists are aware of) because there was no fresh water or vegetation due to the top soil being prone to volcanic activity. Charles Darwin visited the island with his good friend Sir Joseph Hooker. Darwin and Hooker terraformed the destitute island by introducing approximately 220 different plants, transplanted by ship, on a Noah’s Ark of sorts. The experiment worked. Ascension Island is now home to hundreds of plant species and the lifeforms which go alongside vegetation

Champagne Cork


The average Champagne  cork pops out of its carbonated bottle at 40 kilometers per hour. Champagne  is technically a sparkling wine in that it is white wine with carbon dioxide added to give it a bubbling taste sensation. Champaign was originally developed in the Champagne region of northern France. If Champagne is from any other region, it technically is classified as “sparkling wine” as only a Champagne grape can create Champagne