Chernobyl, Ukraine Nuclear Meltdown


In 1986, the world’s worst nuclear accident occurred, when the Chernobyl nuclear reactor within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic exploded releasing 400x as much radiation as the nuclear weaponry which was dropped upon Hiroshima, Japan in 1945 towards the end of World War II. The most dangerous classification of radiation which can be emitted after a nuclear meltdown or detonation of a nuclear atomic bomb are gamma rays, which like x-rays are made up of high energy photons which can travel long distances. Most gamma rays pass straight through an observer, but not all do and these free particles cause fragmentation of deoxyribonucleic acid and damage at the cellular level which can ultimately lead to cancer and subsequently death

Ultraviolet Radiation Sterilization


Ultraviolet radiation disrupts the chemical bonds which hold bacteria and viruses together. Ultraviolet radiation is able to kill the cell and ensures whatever material is exposed afterwards becomes sterile. The longer an organism is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the less likely it is to have any microbes alive upon it. Hospitals and various industries utilize this method of sterilization to ensure their equipment and environment is as free of microorganisms as possible

Space Archeologist


The term “space archeologist” is used to describe “archeologists who use National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellites to discover artifacts hidden below the surface level of the Earth”. Measuring a chemical signature seen only with satellite imagery in a process referred to as “chemical spectrography”, this new and innovative method of archaeological surveying measures off gassing from the ground (which is invisible to the naked eye) by harnessing light from the infrared light spectrum. Subtle differences in chlorophyll indicate changes in vegetation health as plants growing on top of ancient relics are less healthy than their counterparts near by. This allows space archeologists to create maps of what’s below the Earth (e.g. pyramids and amphitheaters)

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar


Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is perhaps the most educated athlete who ever lived, inspired by his father who was an avid reader. Abdul-Jabbar is also a voracious reader who has written 12 books and has worked as a columnist for Time magazine. Abdul-Jabber spent 20 seasons in the NBA, was an NBA All Star for 19 of those seasons, a 6 time NBA champion, and a 6 time NBA Most Valuable Player. Abdul-Jabbar invented and perfected the “sky hook” which was a high arching shot, a shot which he accredits to his time spent learning the sport of archery in which one must shoot above the target in anticipation of the projectile being pulled down to Earth the second it is launched, therefore acting against that downward pull by counteracting with a shot resulting in an arc

Galileo Galilei Determining the Speed of Light


The speed of light was once thought to be infinite and able to travel over infinite distances instantaneously. The polymath Galileo Galilei thought this to be incorrect and had an assistant stand atop a hill 1 kilometer away whilst Galilei shone a lantern and had the assistant shine one back as soon as he recognized the opposing lantern being lit. Galilei posited that he could measure the reaction time and divide it by the distance between both parties. The experiment failed to work because a much greater distance would be required for success. During the 1670’s, the Danish astronomer Ole Roemer closely observed Jupiter and its moon Io. Roemer noticed that his predictions of where Io should be did not synchronize with its actual position and subsequently realized that because Jupiter and Earth are sometimes closer together, the travel time of light between each could take between 1 hour and 1 hour and 15 minutes. Due to this realization, Roemer was able to calculate that light coming from Jupiter’s moon Io traveled at approximately 300,000 meters per second. Today scientists can verify Roemer’s experiment by pulsing a laser beam towards mirrors left upon the moon by astronauts during the Apollo missions NASA launched in decades past to confirm that the speed of light is indeed 299,792,458 meters per second. The lasers scientists use act upon the same principal Radio Detection and Ranging or Radio Direction And Ranging (RADAR), Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR), and Light Detection and Ranging or Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) utilizes in that they all measure objects at a distance by pinging them to approximate how fast they are traveling, and how far away they are

Bose-Einstein Condensate


Bose-Einstein condensate

When atoms become extremely cold and reach absolute zero on the Kelvin scale they enter what’s referred to as a “Bose-Einstein Condensate” which is a state of matter that causes individual atoms to lose their individual properties thus leading them to mash together and act strangely in their behavioral properties. Atoms become so smeared that their waves start looking indistinguishable from incredibly hot and compressed atoms like the kind found inside the inner core of neutron stars, stars which are so dense that a single teaspoon would weigh 10,000,000,000 (10 billion) tonnes

Engineering Pipes For Liquid Flow


The most efficient way to utilize gravity to carry water across long distances is to use a 4 degree slope. Doing so allows water to flow through the pipeline unimpeded whilst allowing a steady flow of air into the pipe so as not to create pressure upon the joints of any bends. Anything above 4 degrees will cause an area of turbulence referred to as a “hydraulic jolt”